Department of
LIFE-SCIENCES






Syllabus for
Master of Science in Zoology
Academic Year  (2019)

 
1 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MLIF136 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2 2 50
MLIF152 PRACTICAL IN CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS 8 4 100
2 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MLIF232 GENETIC ENGINEERING 4 4 100
MLIF251 PRACTICAL IN GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND BIOINFORMATICS 8 4 100
MZOO231 ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION 4 4 100
MZOO251 PRACTICAL IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION 8 4 100
3 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MLIF332 IMMUNOLOGY 4 4 100
MLIF381 SUMMER INTERNSHIP 0 2 50
MZOO331 ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION 4 4 100
MZOO332 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO334 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF INVERTEBRATES AND VERTEBRATES 4 4 100
MZOO351 PRACTICAL IN ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 8 4 100
MZOO352 PRACTICAL IN IMMUNOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF INVERTEBRATES AND VERTEBRATES 8 4 100
4 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MZOO431 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO441A APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO441B ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO442A AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES 4 4 100
MZOO442B FORENSIC BIOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO442C ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 4 4 100
MZOO451 PRACTICAL IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 2 50
MZOO451A PRACTICAL IN APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY 4 2 50
MZOO451B PRACTICAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 4 2 50
MZOO452A PRACTICAL IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES 4 2 50
MZOO452B PRACTICAL IN FORENSIC BIOLOGY 4 2 50
MZOO452C PRACTICAL IN ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 4 2 50
MZOO481 DISSERTATION AND VIVA VOCE 0 6 150
        

  

Assesment Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

Examination And Assesments

The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts; (a) internal evaluation and (b) external evaluation. 50% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the remaining 50% to external evaluation and the ratio and weightage between internal and external is 1:1.  (a) Internal evaluation: The internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent system involving periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance in respect of theory courses and based on written tests, lab skill/records/viva and attendance in respect of practical courses.

Department Overview:
The department of Life Sciences is a unique department in the University where multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teaching and research in life sciences have established permanent roots. It is a diverse discipline that covers all branches of Zoology, Botany and Biotechnology in a dominant manner. This is one of the oldest departments of Christ University (formerly Christ College) started from the inception of the Institution in 1969. This serves as a valuable foundation to many students for understanding cellular and molecular level organization in living beings. The uniqueness of the department essentially lies in the fact that within its faculty there are experts and active researchers representing almost all areas of modern biology. Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory focuses on the extraction, purification, characterization and identification of secondary metabolites present in plants. Particularly, we focus on the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Nothapodytes etc. Plant Tissue Culture laboratory focuses on developing biotechnological approaches for the production of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. We also aim at the rapid multiplication of medicinal plants through plant tissue culture in this laboratory.
Mission Statement:
To uphold the core values of the university and to build up a Life Science Community, for the betterment of humanity with their knowledge, ethics and entrepreneurship.
Introduction to Program:
The core biology subjects like Cytology, Biochemistry, Microbiology etc. which are offered in first year makes the students appreciate the implications of these subjects in further research in Animal Sciences. All the courses in the programme are carefully designed to equip the students for competitive exams like CSIR NET, SET etc. and also to write research proposals for grants. Modules on Forensic Biology, Aquaculture, Entomology, Bioanalytical Tools, and Biostatistics would make the students ready to take up either jobs or research in those aspects.
Program Objective:
To apply the theoretical knowledge gained during the program to the actual practice of laboratory animal science. To develop problem solving skills in students and encourage them to carry out innovative research projects thereby enkindling in them the spirit of knowledge creation. To equip the students to perform functions that demand higher competence in national/international organizations.

MLIF136 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:30
No of Lecture Hours/Week:2
Max Marks:50
Credits:2

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

1.      To understand the theoretical basis of conducting research

2.      To design a research

3.      Understanding the importance of the research paper

4.      To impart knowledge regarding the ethics in research

Learning Outcome

By the end of this course, students will be able to

·         find gaps in the existing research of their interest and conduct the research accordingly

·         to write a research proposal.

·         publish research and review articles in the journal with impact factor.

·         write a project report as well as research paper.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Concepts of Research and Research Formulation
 

Need for research, stages of research; Basic concepts of research -Meaning, Objectives, Motivation and Approaches. Types of Research (Descriptive/Analytical, Applied/ Fundamental, Quantitative/Qualitative, Conceptual/ Empirical); Research formulation -Observation and Facts, Prediction and explanation, Induction, Deduction; Defining and formulating the research problem, Selecting the problem and necessity of defining the problem; Literature review -Importance of literature reviewing in defining a problem, Critical literature review, Identifying gap areas from literature review; Hypothesis -Null and alternate hypothesis and testing of hypothesis -Theory, Principle, Law and Canon.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:7
Research Designs
 

Research Design -Basic principles, Meaning, Need and features of good design, Important concepts; Types of research designs; Development of a research plan -Exploration, Description, Diagnosis, Experimentation, determining experimental and sample designs; Data collection techniques, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:4
Scientific Documentation and Communication
 

Workbook maintenance, Project proposal writing, Research report writing (Thesis and dissertations, Research articles, Oral communications); Presentation techniques - Assignment, Seminar, Debate, Workshop, Colloquium, Conference.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:9
Information Science, Extension and Ethics
 

Sources of Information -Primary and secondary sources; Library - books, Journals: Indexing journals, abstracting journals, research journals, review journals, e-journals. Impact factor of journals, NCBI-Pub Med.; periodicals, reference sources, abstracting and indexing sources, Reviews, Treatise, Monographs, Patents. Internet -Search engines and software, Online libraries, e-Books, e-Encyclopedia, TED Talk, Institutional Websites; Intellectual Property Rights - Copy right, Designs, Patents, Trademarks, plagiarism, Geographical indications; Safety and precaution - ISO standards for safety, Lab protocols, Lab animal use, care and welfare, animal houses, radiation hazards; Extension: Lab to Field, Extension communication, Extension tools; Bioethics: Laws in India, Working with man and animals, Consent, Animal Ethical Committees and Constitution.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.  Thomas, C.G., Research Methodology and Scientific Writing. Anne Books Pvt. Ltd. Bengaluru. 2017.

      2.      Dawson, C. Practical research methods. UBS Publishers, New Delhi. 2002.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Stapleton, P., Yondeowei, A., Mukanyange, J., Houten, H.  Scientific writing for agricultural research scientists – a training reference manual. West Africa Rice Development Association, Hong Kong, 1995.

2.      Ruzin, S.E. Plant micro technique and microscopy. Oxford University Press, New York, U.S.A., 1999.


 

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be based on 10% CIA 1, 25% CIA 2, 10% CIA 3 and 5% Attendance

MLIF152 - PRACTICAL IN CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The paper imparts practical knowledge on the biology of cells and also on the basic experiments in biochemistry. It deals with detailed microscopic studies of basic cell multiplication processes like mitosis and meiosis. Microscopy techniques are given utmost importance.   Furthermore, knowledge of Genetics will help them to solve various complicated genetic problems.

Learning Outcome

The students gain expertise in observing cells and processes like mitosis and meiosis under microscope, which in turn will help them work better in clinical laboratories. Furthermore, the students will learn the importance of cell fractionation. Students will also learn various aspects of Genetic experiments

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Cell Biology
 

 

      Study of mitosis in root tip

 

      Study of meiosis of flower bud

 

      Study of Plasmolysis- deplasmolysis using micrometry

 

      Study of Barr body in the epithelial cells

 

      Isolation and enumeration of mitochondria from yeast cells

 

      Isolation and enumeration of chloroplast from spinach

 

      Estimation of chlorophyll in isolated chloroplasts

 

      Comparative study of chloroplast number and chlorophyll content in different plant families

 

      Permanent slide preparation

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:60
Genetics
 

      Genetic Problems in Recombination and Linkage

      Genetic problems in quantitative genetics

      Genetic problems in population genetics

      Genetic problems in pedigree analysis

Text Books And Reference Books:

J. E. Celis, Cell Biology: A laboratory Hand Book, 3rded. USA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

J. E. Celis, Cell Biology: A laboratory Hand Book, 3rded. USA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation:

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

 

 

End Semester Examination:

 

Time: 6 Hours                                                                     Total Marks: 100

1.      Isolation of chloroplast and estimation of chlorophyll content from the given sample                                                                                                (20 marks)

 

OR

 

Isolation and enumeration of chloroplast from the given sample

 

OR

 

Isolation and enumeration of mitochondria from yeast.

 

(Introduction: 2 marks; Principle: 4 marks; Procedure: 4 marks; Results and discussion: 10 marks)                                   

 

 

 

2.      Preparation of buccal smear for the study of Barr body                   (15 marks)

 

OR

 

Prepare temporary squash of the given biological sample and report any two stages of mitosis.

 

OR

 

Prepare temporary squash of the given biological sample and report any two stages of meiosis.

 

(Introduction: 2 marks; Principle: 3 marks; Procedure: 2 marks; Results and discussion: 8 marks)

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Logical Reasoning                                                                 (3 X 3 marks = 9 marks

 

 

 

4.      Spotters                                                                                (4 X 4 marks = 16 marks)

 

 

 

5.      Viva                                                                                                    (10 marks)

 

 

 

6.      Problems in Genetics                                                                   (30 marks)

 

MLIF232 - GENETIC ENGINEERING (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The objective of the course is to impart in depth knowledge about the concepts in genetic engineering - enzymes, biology of cloning vehicles, vector and host considerations, gene libraries, analysis and expression of the cloned gene in host cell and understand ethical issues and biosafety regulations. It gives emphasis to practical applications of genetic engineering tools in academic and industrial research. At the end of the course the student will have detailed knowledge of recombinant DNA technology essential for taking up projects in the field of Biotechnology.

Learning Outcome

By the end of this course, the students will have in-depth knowledge about different techniques used in rDNA technology, different methods of generating recombinant DNA, different types of vectors, host, methods and means of making of rDNA molecules and analysing them, fingerprinting and more over the students will have the idea about the application of genetic engineering and the biosafety and ethics related to such experiments.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:20
Tools to Make rDNA
 

Introduction to rDNA technology, DNA modifying enzymes and its functions (DNA Polymerases, Klenow fragment, Ligase, S1 Nuclease, Mung Bean nuclease, Alkaline Phosphatase, Terminal Transferase, Polynucleotide kinases, Polynucleotide phosphorylase, Calf intestinal alkaline Phosphatases, Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatases, RNase A, RNase H, DNase 1, DNase II, Exonuclease III, Reverse Transcriptase) Restriction modification system, Restriction enzymes – function, classification (Based on recognition and restriction sequence:-type I, II and III; based on buffer salt concentration: - low, medium and high; based on pattern of restriction:-sticky (5’ and 3’) and blunt end cutters, Plasmids (Types, copy number, properties, origin of replication and incompatibility group, plasmid amplification), bacteriophages eg. λ (Life cycle, genome organization, feasibility as a cloning vehicle), Types of Cloning Vectors (structure and general features of General Purpose cloning vectors, Expression vectors, Promotor probe Vectors, shuttle vectors), Examples of cloning vectors (pBR322, pUC series of vectors, λ insertional and replacement vectors), derivatives of phages and plasmids (cosmids, phagemids, phasmids) cloning vectors for large DNA fragments and genomic DNA library YACs, PACs and BACs. Host and vector consideration, Host Organisms and its genotypes- JM 109 & DH5α, Selectable and scorable markers, reporter genes, prokaryotic and eukaryotic markers (lacZ, CAT, Gus, GFP,cre-loxP system, sac B system, npt II gene, luciferase gene, dhfr gene, herbicide resistance gene)

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:8
Making of rDNA Molecule
 

General strategies for isolation of genomic and plasmid DNA, RNA, strategies for isolation of gene of interest (restriction digestion, PCR), Creation of r-DNA (Restriction Digestion, modification of vector and insert, linker, adaptors, homopolymer tailing, ligation), PCR Cloning, Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries (Selection of vectors and Complexity of library), Methods of gene transfer- Calcium chloride mediated, Electroporation, Biolistic gun, lipofection and microinjection. In vitro packaging.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Screening and analysis of rDNA molecules
 

Blotting techniques- Southern, Northern and Western, Differential display. Gene sequencing- Chemical, enzymatic, pyrosequencing, next generation sequencing, Immunological screening and colony and plaque hybridization, dot blot hybridization, chromosome walking, FISH, RACE, Chromosome walking.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Expression & control of Genes
 

Protein production by foreign DNA in the host bacteria E. coli, Factors influencing expression, properties of expression vector, examples of expression vectors, tags for purification of expressed proteins, FLAG expression vector system, cloning in pET vectors, eukaryotic vectors- Baculovirus based vectors, mammalian viral vectors., expression Host, Modification and folding of protein in-vitro, genome editing, CRISPR/Cas9 and Targeted Genome Editing, 

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Applications of r-DNA Technology
 

RNA interference and gene silencing, Transgenic organisms, Advantages and disadvantages of Genetically Modified Organisms, Transgenic animal- Gene therapy. The Use of Transgenic animals in areas other than recombinant protein production. Transgenic plants- applications, special emphasis to pharmaceutical products. Engineered Nutritional Changes- golden rice, Engineered herbicide resistance, Engineered pesticide resistance. Production of recombinant proteins (Insulin), recombinant vaccines (Hepatitis B), Hormones (Human growth hormone). Genome projects and its Applications. International treaties/agreements in biosafety, public perception on rDNA technology, IPR related to rDNA technology. 

Text Books And Reference Books:

M. L. Srivastava, Bioanalytical Techniques, New Delhi: Narosa Publications, 2011.

E. L. Winnacker, From Genes to Clones Introduction to Gene Technology,New Delhi, India: Panima Publishing Corporation, 2003.

 

T. A. Brown, Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis-An Introduction. 5th ed. UK: Wiley Blackwell Publishers. 2006.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Alkami Quick Guide for PCR A laboratory reference for the Polymerase Chain Reaction, USA. Alkami Biosystems Inc., 1999.

B. R. Glick. J. J. Pasternak and C. L. Patten. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and application of recombinant DNA. 4th ed. Washington D. C: American Society for Microbiology Press, 2010.

 S. B. Primrose, R. M. Twyman and R. W. Old, Principles of Gene Manipulation, 6th ed. USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001

K. Wilson and J. Walker, Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 7th ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

 

 J.  W.  Dale, M. von Schantz and N. Plant, From Genes to Genomes: Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2012.

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

MLIF251 - PRACTICAL IN GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND BIOINFORMATICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to recombinant DNA technology. It helps the students to understand how the principles of molecular biology have been used to develop techniques in recombinant DNA technology. The objective of the course is to familiarize the student with the basic concepts in genetic engineering - enzymes, cloning vehicles, gene libraries, analysis and expression of the cloned gene in host cell and understand ethical issues and biosafety regulations. It gives emphasis to practical applications of genetic engineering tools in the field of health care. At the end of the course the student will have enough background of recombinant DNA technology essential for taking up projects in the field of Biotechnology.

Learning Outcome

Modern Biotechnology relies on rDNA technology. This paper will equip the student with all the basic rDNA methods and protocols. By the end of the course, the students will be
familiar with and gain hands on training on basic rDNA methodologies. Moreover, the students will be able to find a job in R&D laboratories/industries where rDNA works are being done.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Genetic Engineering
 

1

Isolation and purification of DNA from plant, animal, bacterial and fungal samples.

2

Isolation of plasmid DNA from the bacteria.

3

Isolation of megaplasmid from the environmental isolates.

4

Isolation of RNA from plant, animal and bacterial samples and separation on denaturing gel.

5

Primer design and PCR amplification of DNA.

6

Gel-band purification for DNA.

7

RFLP and RAPD, ISSR/SSR analysis of DNA

8

Cloning and expression of gene in E. coli.

9

Southern blotting and hybridization.

10

Agarose gel electrophoresis.

11

Study of star activity of restriction Enzyme.

12

Study of complete and partial digestion of DNA.

13

Effect of different parameters on Restriction digestion.

Site Directed Mutagenesis

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unit-2
Teaching Hours:30
Bioanalytical Techniques
 

14

Analysis of Amino Acids and Sugars (TLC and Colorimetric)

15

Extraction of phytochemicals using Soxhlet apparatus

16

Column Chromatography

17

Affinity chromatography.

18

HPLC- Principle and sample preparation, visit to Research Institute for analysis

19

Zymogram

20

Microwave assisted extraction

21

Density Gradient Centrifugation

22

Dialysis and purification of proteins

23

Isoelectric focusing

24

Colorimetry and spectrophotometry

   
Unit-3
Teaching Hours:30
Bioinformatics
 

Docking studies of ligands

Construction of dendogram

Pubmed

BLASTN, BLASTP and BLASTX

FASTA

KEGG

EXPASY

RasMol

Text Books And Reference Books:

S Sadasivam, A. Manickam. Biochemical Methods. 2Ed, Delhi: New Age International Publishers Ltd, 1996.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

S. K. Sawhney. R. Singh. Introductory Practical Biochemistry. New Delhi. Narosa Publications. 2014.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

End Semester Examination

MAXIMUM MARKS: 100                                                               DURATION: 6 HOURS 

 

Sl No.

Question

Marks

1

Isolation and purification of gDNA/Plasmid and analyze on agarose gel (Principle 5 marks, Procedure 5 marks, Results 20 marks)

30

2

SDS PAGE/ Column Chromatography (Principle 5 marks, Procedure 5 marks, Results 20 marks)

30

3

Construct a phylogenetic tree using the following nucleotide sequences from different species.                                                                                                             

10

4

Protein/Nucleotide Sequence Alignment using BLAST OR Protein structure studies by Rasmol  OR Gene sequence search using online tools.                                                                                               

5

5

Spotters 5 X 4 Marks

15

6

Viva

10

   
     
     
     
     

 

MZOO231 - ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To gain understanding and appreciation of animal diversity, their phylogeny and the recent progress in the field and to understand the general concepts of evolution of animal development, morphology, genomes, natural selection, and speciation and other characters.

Learning Outcome

Students come to know the information needed to construct a phylogenetic tree of animals; distinguish between morphological and molecular data in creating phylogenetic trees and to understand biological evolution, natural selection

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Animal phylogeny
 

Definition and basic concepts of biosystematics taxonomy and classification, Dimensions of speciation and taxonomic characters, Species concepts: species category, different species concepts, Subspecies, Trends in biosystematics: Chemotaxonomy cytotaxonomy and molecular taxonomy, International code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), Biodiversity at global, national levels. Biogeographic classification of India, India as a mega diversity nation.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Animal phylogeny
 

Animal organization: Parazoa and eumetazoa, Cellular, tissue and organ grade, symmetry, metamerism, coleomate, acoleomate & eucoelomate, protostomia and deuterostomia, phenology.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent and divergent evolution; Co-evolution.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Evolution of Social interaction and Cooperation; Sexual selection, Group selection, Hamilton’s Rule, Red queen hypothesis, Kin selection, Parent – offspring conflict, mating systems, evolutionary pattern of invertebrate and vertebrate (birds, horses and human) ; DNA Barcoding; Cladogenesis and anagenesis

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Population and structure, Population growth: Density dependent and independent, Survivorship, life history strategies (r and K selection), Competitions among species: Intraspecific and Interspecific, Lotka-Volterra interspecific competition model, Mimicry and Animal coloration, Island communities and colonization.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Kotpal, R.L. and N.P. Bali, 1986. Concepts of Ecology, Vishal Publications, Delhi – 7, 264 pp.

2.      RastogiV.B. and M.S. Jayaraj, 1988-89. Animal Ecology and distribution of animals, KedarNath Ram Nath, Meerut – 250 001, 429 pp.

3.      Clarke, G.L., 1954. Elementa of Ecology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, London, 534 pp.

4.      Mayr, Ernst, 1973 – Animal species and Evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge.

5.      Dobzansky, T. 1976 – Genetics and the origin of species. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Savage, J.M. 1976 – Evolution. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

2.      Elic. Minkoff, 1983 – Evolutionary Biology, Addison Wesley.

3.   Leninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 1993 – principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO251 - PRACTICAL IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To understand the principle behind various techniques in molecular biology, bioinformatics and Animal Evolution

Learning Outcome

Learn various techniques in molecular biology like DNA and RNA estimation, Bioinofrmatics like docking, constructing dendogram, tools (BLAST, FASTA) etc. and Animal Biotechnology like aseptic handling of animal materials.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Molecular Biology
 

        DNA and RNA estimation by colorimetry and spectrophotometry

        Screening of auxotrophic mutants

        Bacteriophage assay

        UV and chemical mutagenesis

        Screening of markers

        Conjugation mapping

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:60
Animal phylogeny and evolution
 

Collection, Identification and study of Invertebrate and Vertebrate (pictures and specimens)

1.      Invertebrate: Porifera, Coelenterate, Helminthes,

2.      Invertebrate: Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata

3.      Vertebrata: Pisces and Amphibia 

4.      Vertebrata: Reptiles, Aves and Mammalia  

5.      Recognition of fauna from museum study and taxonomic key preparation;

6.      Biodiversity assessment, Measuring species diversity of different habitat;

7.      Study of the skull of vertebrates - Varanus, Crocodile, Bird, Dog, Rabbit/ Rat

8.      Diversity Parameters for comparative study of habitats

9.      Study of analogous and homologous organs

10.   Study of evolution of human/ horse

11.   Pattern of evolution from museum study

Text Books And Reference Books:

S Sadasivam, A. Manickam. Biochemical Methods. 2Ed, Delhi: New Age International Publishers Ltd, 1996.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.     Gardner E J, Simmons M J, Snustad D P (1991). Principles of Genetics (III Edn). John Wiley and Sons Inc.

2.     Snustad D P, Simmons M J (2000). Principles of Genetics (III Edn). John Wiley and Sons.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 mark

 

1.     Estimation of DNA/RNA using colourimetrty/Spectrophotometry with  calculations (20 Marks)

2. Isoltion of DNA from the given sample (20 marks)

3. Spotters (A-D): 20 marks

4. Identify the pattern of evolution and comment on the spotters : (20 marks)

5. Evolution of Horse /Human: (10 marks)

6. VIVA-10 marks

6.

MLIF332 - IMMUNOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

This paper focuses on the fundamental science of immunology and explores the clinical and therapeutic aspects of immunology.  Topics include immunogenetics and molecular structure of immunoglobulins, T cell & B cell development, MHC antigens, modern vaccines, functions and dysfunctions of the components of the immune system; applications of immunological technologies in modern scientific research and development. These topics will help the students to absorb most of the fundamentals in immunology and this can benefit in understanding the advanced topics in this area.

Learning Outcome

Students learn immune techniques involved in detection and quantification of antigens and antibodies. The course provides outstanding opportunities for research in basic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, immune and inflammatory responses to infection, and the development of drugs and vaccines. 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:7
Introduction to Immunology
 

History of Immunology, Innate Immune Immunity and its role in protection, physiological barriers, mechanical barriers, chemical barriers, Inflammatory response. Adaptive Immunity – naturally and artificially acquired immunity.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:16
Cells and Organs of Immune System
 

Haematopoiesis, Humoral and cellular component of the Immune system, Role of different blood cells in immune system-B cell ( Structure of B cell receptor, co-receptor, Antigen dependent and independent phases of B cell activation)  T cytotoxic cell, T helper cell, T cell receptors( (γ/δ, αβ) Maturation of T cell, Dendritic cell, Macrophages, null cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, Monocytes  primary lymphoid organs- thymus, nude mice, Experiments to prove positive and negative selection of thymocytes, bone marrow, secondary lymphoid organs- spleen, lymph node, MALT, SALT.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:5
Antigen-Antibody Interaction
 

Antigenicity and Immunogenicity, epitopes of B Cells  and T Cells, Haptens, adjuvants,  super antigens, antigenic drift and shift, Elucidation of antibody structure, variable regions, constant regions, Heavy chains light regions, classification and functions of antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, I,gE). Functions of different antibodies Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, Opsonisation, Antibodies activating complement system, Isotypic determinants, Allotypic determinants, Idiotypic determinants, synthesis, assembly and secretion of immunoglobulins, generation, Antibody diversity: Mini gene theory, Mutation theory, Germ line theory, Somatic recombination, V (D) J recombination, Combinatorial diversity, Junctional diversity, Dryer-Bennet Experiment, Tonegawa’s Experiments Monoclonal antibodies-hybridoma technology, chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies, Heteroconjugates, Immunotoxins, Abzymes.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:16
Antigens and Antibodies
 

Affinity and avidity, precipitation reactions- radial immunodiffusion, double immunodiffusion, Agglutination- heamagglutination, agglutination inhibition, rocket electrophoresis, radioimmunoassay, ELISA- indirect, sandwich, competitive ELISA , immunofluoroscent techniques.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:6
Antigen Processing and Presentation
 

MHC molecules and organization of their genes, Structure and function of MHC types. Antigen processing, role of MHC in antigen presentation Immunity against intracellular and extracellular Pathogens. Oxygen dependent and independent phagocytosis, Pathogens resistant to phagocytosis. Immunity to tuberculosis, humoral and cellular response CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, T cell apoptosis, γ/δ T-cells, cytokines, HIV-TB Coinfections. Immunotolerance (Central Tolerance, Peripheral Tolerance, Tolerance induction)

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:3
Complement System
 

History and Definition of complement proteins, functions of complement system, Classical pathway, Alternate pathway, Mannan binding lectin pathway, Deficiency in complement system

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:3
Hypersensitivity
 

Definition of hypersensitivity reactions, Coomb’s classification of HS reactions- Immediate reactions-Type I, II, III. Delayed HS reactions-type IV Autoimmune diseases-Diabetes 1, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid Arthritis Transplantation: Terminology, Auto graft, Isograft, Allograft, Xenograft, Immunological basis of transplantation reactions, GVH reaction, Immuno suppression, General mechanisms of Immune suppression, Immune suppression, drugs (azothioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cycosporin-A, Steroids), Immunosuppressive therapies(Induction Therapy and Maintenance Therapy)

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:4
Vaccines and Immunization
 

Passive and Active immunization. Types of Vaccines-Live, attenuated vaccines, Inactivated vaccines, Subunit vaccines, Toxoid vaccines, Conjugate vaccines, DNA vaccines, Recombinant vector vaccines.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1

Abbas.k.Abdul, Lichtman. H.Andrew, Pober.J. Jordan, Cell and Molecular Immunology, 3rded. India:Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.

2

H. F. Khan, The elements of Immunology, India: Pearson Education, 2009.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1

T. J. Kindt, B. A. Osborne and R. A. Goldsby, Kuby Immunology, 6th ed. USA: W.H. Freeman & Company, 2007.

2

W. Luttman, Immunology, 2nd ed. USA: Academic press, 2006.

3

D.  Male, Immunology, 7thed. USA: Mosby Elsevier, 2006.

4

W. E. Paul, Fundamental Immunology, 7thed. USA: Lippincott’s William &    Wilkins, 2012.

Evaluation Pattern

 

The evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA-1 (10%), CIA-2 (Mid-Semester Examination) (25%), CIA-3 (10%), attendance (5%) and End-Semester Examination (50%).

 Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MLIF381 - SUMMER INTERNSHIP (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:0
No of Lecture Hours/Week:0
Max Marks:50
Credits:2

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Summer Internship provides an exposure to the research and developments happening in both research institutes as well as industries.

Learning Outcome

Students will have hands-on experience with the modern research tools and techniques, as well as the work being done in various industries. Students will also learn about the latest technologies being followed in the industries that will help them for their future career.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:0
N/A
 

N/A

Text Books And Reference Books:

N/A

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

N/A

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be based on the internship-report that they submit and/or presentation on their learnings during VIVA.

MZOO331 - ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To gain understanding and appreciation of animal diversity, their phylogeny and the recent progress in the field and to understand the general concepts of evolution of animal development, morphology, genomes, natural selection, and speciation and other characters.

Learning Outcome

Students come to know the information needed to construct a phylogenetic tree of animals; distinguish between morphological and molecular data in creating phylogenetic trees and to understand biological evolution, natural selection

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Animal phylogeny
 

Definition and basic concepts of biosystematics taxonomy and classification, Dimensions of speciation and taxonomic characters, Species concepts: species category, different species concepts, Subspecies, Trends in biosystematics: Chemotaxonomy cytotaxonomy and molecular taxonomy, International code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), Biodiversity at global, national levels. Biogeographic classification of India, India as a mega diversity nation.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Animal phylogeny
 

 

 

 

 

 

Animal organization: Parazoa and eumetazoa, Cellular, tissue and organ grade, symmetry, metamerism, coleomate, acoleomate & eucoelomate, protostomia and deuterostomia, phenology. Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity: Jawless Vertebrates, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals. Type study: cockroach and frog.

 

 

 

 

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Concepts and theories of organic evolution: Pre Darwinian concepts, Darwinism and its impact in the development of synthetic theory. Neo-darwinism: Birth of population genetics, Evidences of evolution, Components of population genetics, Mendelian population, gene pool, allele frequencies and genotype frequencies, Models depicting Hardy Weinberg law, Destabilizing forces of evolutionary equilibrium (Mutation, Migration, Selection, Meiotic drive and genetic drift). Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent and divergent evolution; Co-evolution.

 

 

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Evolution of Social interaction and Cooperation; Sexual selection, Group selection, Hamilton’s Rule, Red queen hypothesis, Kin selection, Parent – offspring conflict, mating systems, evolutionary pattern of invertebrate and vertebrate (birds, horses and human) ; DNA Barcoding; Cladogenesis and anagenesis

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Evolution
 

Population and structure, Population growth: Density dependent and independent, Survivorship, life history strategies (r and K selection), Competitions among species: Intraspecific and Interspecific, Lotka-Volterra interspecific competition model, Mimicry and Animal coloration, Island communities and colonization.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Kotpal, R.L. and N.P. Bali, 1986. Concepts of Ecology, Vishal Publications, Delhi – 7, 264 pp.

2.      RastogiV.B. and M.S. Jayaraj, 1988-89. Animal Ecology and distribution of animals, KedarNath Ram Nath, Meerut – 250 001, 429 pp.

3.      Clarke, G.L., 1954. Elementa of Ecology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, London, 534 pp.

4.      Mayr, Ernst, 1973 – Animal species and Evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge.

5.      Dobzansky, T. 1976 – Genetics and the origin of species. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Savage, J.M. 1976 – Evolution. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

2.      Elic. Minkoff, 1983 – Evolutionary Biology, Addison Wesley.

3.   Leninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 1993 – principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO332 - ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To study and compare the functioning of organ systems across the animal world; to give an over view of the comparative functioning of different systems in animals and to learn more about human physiology

Learning Outcome

The students will understand various physiological organ-systems and their importance to the integrative functions of the animal body, especially on humans

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Digestion and Absorption
 

Nutrition in animals, mechanisms of food intake in different animals, Physiology of digestion and absorption. Structural and biochemical adaptations to special dietary pattern, symbiotic digestion, neuronal and hormonal regulation of nutritional intake, hunger drive, thirst. Obesity- causes and consequences, outline of hormonal involvement, Leptin: synthesis, secretion and its role in adipogenesis

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Circulation and Respiration
 

Circulatory mechanisms and fluid compartments, movement of body fluids by somatic muscles, open system, closed system, lymph channels. Types of hearts- chambered heart, tubular heart, ampullar heart, lymph heart, neurogenic and myogenic heart. Pace makers and specialized conducting fibers. Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, blood pressure, blood buffers, circulatory shock, circulatory arrest. Human congenital heart diseases. Effect of drugs and exercise on cardiovascular physiology. Electrocardiography (ECG), Echocardiogram, Angiogram, Treadmill Test TMT - its principle and significance.

Respiration in invertebrates (WSR to arthropods) and vertebrates. Structure and function of respiratory pigments. Pulmonary ventilation, respiratory muscles, surfactants. Respiratory centers and periodic breathing. Regulation of respiration. Respiration in unusual environment – foetal and neonatal respiration, high altitude, diving. Metabolic rate: measurement of basal metabolic rate and respiratory quotient and its significance

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Osmoregulation and Excretion
 

Osmoregulation in fresh water, marine and terrestrial animals. Excretion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Physiology and regulation of urine formation, Hormonal regulation of urine formation. Regulation of water balance, electrolyte balance and acid-base balance. Thermoregulation - Heat balance in animals, Adaptations to temperature extremes, torpor, Adaptations to Stress- basic concept of environmental stress, acclimation, acclimatization, avoidance and tolerance, stress and hormones. Dialysis, artificial kidney, kidney transplantation.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Nerve and Sensory Physiology
 

Neuroanatomy of the central and peripheral nervous system. Electrical and chemical transmission. Synaptic transmission. Modifications of synaptic transmission during fatigue, acidosis, alkalosis, hypoxia and drugs. Mechanism of excitatory and inhibitory pathway. Neuromuscular Junction: organization and properties of neuromuscular junction, neuromodulators. Neural control of muscle tone and posture.

Hotoreception, chemoreception, mechanoreception, echolocation, Endogenous and exogenous biological rhythms, Chromatophores and bioluminescence.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Reproductive physiology
 

Anatomy and histology of adult testis and ovary. Reproductive cycles of mammals and their hormonal control. Physiology of implantation, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Impact of senescence and age on reproduction. Disorders associated with reproductive physiology. Super ovulation, sperm capacitation, events of fertilization

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Bentley,P.J. 1998. Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology (3rd edn). Cambridge University Press

2.      Bray, J.J., Cragg, P. A, Macknight, A.D, Mills, R.S and Taylor, D.W 1986. Lecture Notes on human Physiology. ELBS, New Delhi.

3.      Brijlal Gupta and J.A. Ramsay, 1977. Transport of Ions and Water in Animals. Academic Press, New York.

4.      Chatterjee, C.C. 1997. Human Physiology. Medical allied agency, Calcutta.

5.      Ganong, W.F 1987. Review of Medical physiology. Appleton and lang, Norwalk.

6.      Guyton, A.C. 1996. Text Book of Medical physiology. Prism Books Pvt.Ltd.Bangalore

7.      Hill, W.R., Wyse, G.A and Anderson, M. 2007. Animal Physiology (2nd edn). Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, MA, USA.

8.      Hoar, W.S. 1983. General and Comparative Physiology. Prentice Hall of India,New Delhi.

9.      Hochachka, P.W. and Somero, G.N. 1984. Biochemical Adaptation. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

10.  Hochachka, P.W. and Somero, G.N 2002. Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Ian Kay.1998. Introduction to Animal Physiology. Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK

2.      Keele, C.A , Neil, E. and Joels, N. 1982. Samson Wright’s Applied  Physiology. Oxford University Press

3.      Knut Schmidt-Neilsen. 1997. Animal physiology: Adaptations and Environment Cambridge University Press

4.      Larsson, P.R. et al., 2002. William’s Text Book of Endocrinology (10th edn).W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia

5.      Moyers, D.C and Schulte ,P.M. 2007. Principles  of Animal Physiology  (2nd edn). Benjamin Cummings,CA, USA

6.      Prosser, C.L and Brown, F.A. 1973. Comparative Animal Physiology. W.B Saunders Company,

Philadelphia

7.      Randall, D., Burgrenn, W. and French, K. 1997. Eckert Animal physiology.W.H. freeman&Co,New York.

8.      Squires,E.J. 2003 Applied Animal Endocrinology, CABIPublications,UK.

9.      Timothy J. Bradley. 2009.Animal Osmoregulation. OABS, Oxford University Press, UK.

10. Wilmer, P., G. Stone and I .Jonston. 1997. Environmental Physiology of Animals (2nd edn). Blackwell Publishers, NY, USA

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO334 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF INVERTEBRATES AND VERTEBRATES (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To learn the anatomy of several representative invertebrates and vertebrates, to gain familiarity with anatomical terms and descriptors, to learn how to use guides and diagrams to identify anatomical features in an actual organism, to learn dissection techniques, to understand how morphology relates to function, to understand how biomechanical constraints influence anatomy and physiology. 

Learning Outcome

Students will able to

Ø   learn the functional anatomy of the major groups of invertebrates and vertebrates,

Ø   integrate knowledge of anatomical form with understanding of physiological function and developmental processes;

Ø   learn the evolutionary history of the invertebrates and vertebrates and of their organ systems:

gain first-hand experience with anatomical structure

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Skeletal system
 

Spicules in Porifera, Hydrostatic movement in Coelentrata, Skeletal system of Arthropods and Echinoderms. Axial and appendicular skeletal system, their modification and significance in tetrapods.

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Integumentary and Muscular system
 

Integumentary system in invertebrates, Derivatives of Integumentary system of Fish Mammals. Muscular movement in invertebrates, Musculature in vertebrates- smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles, red and white muscles, physicochemical properties of muscle. Energetics of muscle contraction. Appendicular musculature of Tetrapods. Flight muscles of Insects and Birds.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Digestive and Vascular system
 

 

 

 

Digestive system of Invertebrates and Vertebrates. Brief account of alimentary canal and digestive glands. Canalicular system in Porifera, Vascular system in Annelida, Arthropoda and Echinodermata; Evolution of Portal system in Vertebrates, Lymphatic system in Land Vertebrates, Respiratory system: Respiratory organs of Annelids, Arthropods (Book lungs, book gills, trachea)Molluscs and Echinoderms. Pharyngeal basket in Lower Chordates. Respiratory organs of higher Chordates

 

 

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Nervous system
 

Nervous system in Coelentrata, Helminthes, Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs and Echinoderms. Central, Peripheral and autonomous system in Tetrapods; Sensory organs in Cnidarians, Helminthes, Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs and Echinoderms. Somatic and visceral receptors of the Vertebrates

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Urino-genital system
 

Excretory organs in Helminthes, Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs and Echinoderms and vertebrates Reproductive organs in Arthropods and Echinoderms. Testes, vasa deferentia, ovary and oviduct of Vertebrates

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Barrington EJ, Invertebrate Structure and Function, Thomas Nelson and Sons, USA.

2.      Kardong K, Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function and Evolution, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA. Kent CG and Carr R, Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA.

3.      LiemKF and Franklin W, Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates: an Evolutionary Perspective, Harcourt  College Publishers, California.

4.      Wolff RG, Functional Chordate Anatomy, Amazon Publication, UK.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Barrington EJ, Invertebrate Structure and Function, Thomas Nelson and Sons, USA.

2.      Kardong K, Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function and Evolution, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA. Kent CG and Carr R, Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO351 - PRACTICAL IN ANIMAL PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To gain practical understanding and appreciation of animal taxonomy, preparation of taxonomic keys based on morphological observation, their phylogeny and to get exposed in the general concepts of evolution of animal development by studying fossils and other evidences. 

And also understand the different functions of organ systems across the animal world and can relate it to the comparative functioning of the same in human.

Learning Outcome

Students will able to develop practical skill in the field of taxonomy, evolution and understand various physiological organ-systems and their importance to the integrative functions of the animal body, especially on humans

 

 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Animal phylogeny and evolution
 

Collection, Identification and study of Invertebrate and Vertebrate (pictures and specimens)

1.      Invertebrate: porifera, helminthes Coelenterate, Arthropoda,

2.      Invertebrate: Mollusca and Echinodermata

3.      Vertebrata: Pisces and Amphibia 

4.      Vertebrata: Reptiles, Aves and Mammalia  

5.      Recognition of fauna from museum study and taxonomic key preparation;

6.      Biodiversity assessment, Measuring species diversity of different habitat;

7.      Study of the skull of vertebrates - Varanus, Crocodile, Bird, Dog, Rabbit/ Rat

8.      Diversity Parameters for comparative study of habitats

9.      Study of analogous and homologous organs

10.  Study of evolution of human/ horse

11.  Pattern of evolution from museum study

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:60
Animal Physiology
 

1.      Effect of salivary amylase activity on starch at different temperature

2.      Effect of salivary amylase activity on starch at different  pH

3.      To examine the relative activity of enzymes in the fore, mid, and hindgut of a typical insect.

4.      Oxygen consumption in fish (normal and stressed). Graphical representation and interpretation.

5.      Kymograph: working principle and applications.

6.      Study on the haemetological parameters

7.      Effect of different concentration of NaCl solution (0.1%-2%) on the diameter of RBCs (preferably human) and determination of the concentration, which is isotonic to the blood from a plot of diameter of RBC against concentration of NaCl

8.      Assessing physical and chemical modifier of heart rate in chick embryo. 

9.      Study of human lung functional test using Spirometer

10.  Tread Mill Test for heart functioning.

liver function test

11.  Eye functioning test.

 

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Dobzansky, T. 1976 – Genetics and the origin of species. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

2.      Savage, J.M. 1976 – Evolution. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

3.      Elic. Minkoff, 1983 – Evolutionary Biology, Addison Wesley.

Leninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 1993 – principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

1.      Hoar, W.S. 1983. General and Comparative Physiology. Prentice Hall of India,New Delhi.

2.      Hochachka, P.W. and Somero, G.N. 1984. Biochemical Adaptation. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

3.      Hochachka, P.W. and Somero, G.N 2002. Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.

4.      Ian Kay.1998. Introduction to Animal Physiology. Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK

5.      Keele, C.A , Neil, E. and Joels, N. 1982. Samson Wright’s Applied  Physiology. Oxford University Press

6.      Knut Schmidt-Neilsen. 1997. Animal physiology: Adaptations and Environment Cambridge University Press

7.      Larsson, P.R. et al., 2002. William’s Text Book of Endocrinology (10th edn).W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia

8.      Moyers, D.C and Schulte ,P.M. 2007. Principles  of Animal Physiology  (2nd edn). Benjamin Cummings,CA, USA

9.      Prosser, C.L and Brown, F.A. 1973. Comparative Animal Physiology. W.B Saunders Company,

Philadelphia

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Kotpal, R.L. and N.P. Bali, 1986. Concepts of Ecology, Vishal Publications, Delhi – 7, 264 pp.

2.      RastogiV.B. and M.S. Jayaraj, 1988-89. Animal Ecology and distribution of animals, KedarNath Ram Nath, Meerut – 250 001, 429 pp.

3.      Clarke, G.L., 1954. Elementa of Ecology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, London, 534 pp.

4.      Mayr, Ernst, 1973 – Animal species and Evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge.

1.      Bentley,P.J. 1998. Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology (3rd edn). Cambridge University Press

2.      Bray, J.J., Cragg, P. A, Macknight, A.D, Mills, R.S and Taylor, D.W 1986. Lecture Notes on human Physiology. ELBS, New Delhi.

3.      Brijlal Gupta and J.A. Ramsay, 1977. Transport of Ions and Water in Animals. Academic Press, New York.

4.      Chatterjee, C.C. 1997. Human Physiology. Medical allied agency, Calcutta.

5.      Ganong, W.F 1987. Review of Medical physiology. Appleton and lang, Norwalk.

6.      Guyton, A.C. 1996. Text Book of Medical physiology. Prism Books Pvt.Ltd.Bangalore

7.      Hill, W.R., Wyse, G.A and Anderson, M. 2007. Animal Physiology (2nd edn). Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, MA, USA.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (Performance 20%, Record- 10%, Mid sem- 25% )

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE

Sl.No

Questions

Marks

1

Identify, classify and comment on ‘A’ with neat-labeled diagram (invertebrates). Add a note on their phylogeny

 

5

2

Identify, classify and comment on ‘A’ with neat labeled diagram (vertebrates). Add a note on their phylogeny

 

5

3

Make a biodiversity assessment and measure the species diversity of the habitat you have studied

10

4

Identify and comment on the evolutionary significance of ‘C & D’

(homologous or analogous)

10

5

Identify and comment on ‘E’ with evolutionary modifications (skull of vertebrates

10

6

Determine the activity of salivary amylase on starch at different temperature or pH. Write the procedure involved and discuss your results.

Or

Determine the relative activity of enzymes in the gut of the given insect. Write the procedure involved and discuss your results.

20

7

Estimate the amount of oxygen consumed by an aquatic organism provided. Plot a graph and interpret your results along with a detailed procedure.

Or

Determine the concentration of NaCl solution which is isotonic to the blood and discuss your results with detailed procedure.

20

8

Identify and comment on the working principle and application of the instrument provided

20

MZOO352 - PRACTICAL IN IMMUNOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF INVERTEBRATES AND VERTEBRATES (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To provide in-depth practical knowledge in immune system as well as their functions and the anatomical details about the various animals. 

Learning Outcome

Students will able to

Ø  demonstrate a comprehensive and practical understanding of basic immunological principles involved in research and clinical/applied science.

Ø  explain the mechanisms and differences between primary and secondary responses and their relevance to immunizations.

Ø integrate knowledge of anatomical form with understanding of physiological function and developmental processes;

Ø gain first-hand experience with anatomical structure

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Immunology
 

1.      Collection of primary and secondary immune organs of Goat/sheep

2.      Preparation and study of phagocytosis by spleenic/peritoneal macrophages.

3.      Ouchterlony (double diffusion) assay for Antigen -antibody specificity and titre.

4.      ELISA

5.      Radial Immuno diffusion

6.      Antibody purification from the serum collected from immunized mice: affinity purification/chromatography.

7.      Immunoelectrophoresis.

8.      Rocket electrophoresis

9.      Demonstration of Western blotting:

10.  Protein estimation by Lowry’s method /Bradford’s method

11.  SDS-PAGE.

12.  Immunoblot analysis.

13.  Widal test

14.  VDRL TEST

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:60
Comparative anatomy
 

1.      Osteological preparation of chick and rat -  limb bones and girdles

2.      Osteological preparation of chick and rat -  Appendicular and flight muscles of bird;

3.      Afferent and efferent branchial system of fishes

4.      Hepatic portal system of rat.

5.      Nervous system of Crab, Pila/Loligo,

6.      Cranial nerves (V-VII and IX- X) of teleosts

7.      Nerves and blood vessels in the neck region of rat;

8.      Reproductive system of cockroach

9.      Reproductive system of fish

10.  Mounting (Temporary) of Mouth parts of Mosquito, Salivary glands of cockroach,

11.  Mounting of statocyst of Prawn/Loligo, Ctenidium and Osphradium of Pila, Radula of Pila,

12.  Mounting of Trachea and Spiracles of insect.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Kuby Immunology, Richard, Thomas, Barbara, Janis, (5th Ed., 2003), W. H. Freeman and company, New York, USA.

2.      Immuno Biology- The immune system in health and disease, Janeway, Travers, Walport and Shlomchik, (6th Ed., 2005), Garland Science Publishing, New York, USA.

3.      Immunology, David, Brostoff and Roitt, (7th Ed., 2006), Mosby & Elsevier Publishing, Canada, USA.

4.      Abbas, A.K., Lichtman,A.K and Pober , J.S. 1997. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. W.B. Saunders Co. New York

5.      Ashim K. Chakravarthy. 1998. Immunology. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.

6.      Chakraborty, A.K. 2006. Immunology and Immunotechnology. Oxford University Press,New Delhi

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Darla,J, Wise &Gordeon,R.Carter. 2004. Immunology- A Comprehensive Review. Iowa State University Press. A Blackwell Science Co,USA

2.      David Male,JonathanBrostoff, David Roth and Ivan Roitt. 2006.  Immunology. Mosby, Edinburgh,UK

3.      Goldsby, R.A.,Kindt, T.J. and Osborne, B.A.2000. Immunology (4th edn.). W.H. Freeman and Co. NY,USA.

4.      Hannigan, B. M., Moore, C. B. T. and Quinn, D. G. 2010.  Immunology. Viva Books, New Delhi.

1.      Barrington EJ, Invertebrate Structure and Function, Thomas Nelson and Sons, USA.

2.      Kardong K, Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function and Evolution, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA. Kent CG and Carr R, Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, McGraw-Hill Companies, USA.

3.      LiemKF and Franklin W, Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates: an Evolutionary Perspective, Harcourt  College Publishers, California.

Wolff RG, Functional Chordate Anatomy, Amazon Publication, UK.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (Performance 20%, Record- 10%, Mid sem- 25% )

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE

Sl.No

Questions

Marks

1

Identify and comment on ‘A & B’. Write the detailed procedure in their preparation

10

2

Identify and comment on the flag labeled parts of the dissected and preserved specimen ‘C’

10

3

Identify and comment on the flag labeled parts of the dissected and preserved specimen ‘C’

10

4

Identify and comment on the system of the dissected and preserved specimen ‘D’

10

5

Make a temporary mount of mouth parts/Salivary glands/statocyst/

Ctenidium/Osphradium/ Radula/ Trachea/ spiracles

10

6

To precipitate and estimate immunoglobulin by Bradford method

20

7

Enumerate WBC and RBC/Differential count of WBC

10

8

Spotter

9

9

Logical reasoning/Case Study

6

10

Viva

5

MZOO431 - DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To introduce the concepts and process in developmental biology; to help students understand and appreciate the genetic mechanisms and the unfolding ofthe same during development and to expose the learner to the new developments in embryology and its relevance to Man

Learning Outcome

Apply key principles of developmental biology toward evaluating and analyzing primary literature in the field. Be able to explain key concepts, including mechanisms by which differential gene activity controls development, mechanisms that determine cell fate, and mechanisms that ensure consistency and reliability of development

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
History and basic concepts
 

The origin of developmental biology- cell theory, mosaic and regulative development, discovery of induction, genetics and development; basic concepts of developmental biology- cell division, cell differentiation, signaling, patterning; model systems: vertebrates model organism- Xenopuslaevis, chicken, mammals, zebrafish; invertebrate model organism- Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans; identification of developmental genes: spontaneous and induced mutation, mutant screening, developmental mutations in Drosophila

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Early embryonic development of vertebrates and invertebrates
 

Structure of the gametes– the sperm, the egg; cleavage and gastrulation; axes and germ layers; morphogenesis– cell adhesion, cleavage and formation of blastula, gastrulation, neural tube formation, cell migration; Axis specification in Drosophila; origin of anterior- posterior and dorsal- ventral patterning- role of maternal genes, patterning of early embryo by zygotic genes; segmentation genes- the gap genes, the pair– rule genes, the segment polarity genes, the homeotic selector genes- bithorax and antennapedia complex.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
General concepts of organogenesis
 

Development of chick limb- development and patterning of vertebrate limb, proximal- distal and dorso- ventral axis formation, homeobox genes in patterning, signaling in patterning of the limb; insect imaginal disc– determination of wing and leg imaginal discs, organizing center in patterning of the wing, butterfly wing development, the homeotic selector genes for segmental identity; insect compound eye– morphogenetic furrow, ommatidia, signaling, eyeless gene; kidney development– development of ureteric bud and mesenchymal tubules. 

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Postembryonic development
 

Growth- cell proliferation, growth hormones; aging- genes involved in alteration in timing of senescence; regeneration– epimorphic regeneration of reptile (salamander) limb, requirement of nerves for the proliferation of blastema cells; embryonic stem cells and their applications; medical implications of developmental biology: genetic errors of human development- the nature of human syndromes– pleiotropy, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, mechanism of dominance; gene expression and human disease– inborn errors of nuclear RNA processing, inborn errors of translation; Teratogenesis: Malformations and disruptions, Gene – phene relationship, Autophene, Allophene and Pleiotrophy; Teratogenic agents (Retinoic acid, pathogens, alcohol, drugs and chemicals, heavy metals); Environmental oestrogens

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:10
Metamorphosis and Regeneration
 

Metamorphosis of Amphibians and Insects; Hormonal control of metamorphosis. Heterochrony- neoteny, progenesis (Brief accounts); regeneration - different types of regeneration; Histological processes during regeneration; Polarity and Metaplasia in regeneration; Lens regeneration in amphibia; Bone and neural regeneration (Medical -Advances in regeneration).

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:10
Human Welfare and Developmental Biology
 

Infertility - causes, ART- OI, AI, donar conception, IVF, ICSI, GIFT, ZIFT, PGD, Surrogacy. Cloning experiments- (Amphibians, Mammals and Human). Stem cells and their applications, Prenatal and Neonatal care, Ultra Sound monitoring of the fetus, Birth control, Ethical issues

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Developmental Biology, Gilbert, (8th Ed., 2006) Sinauer Associates Inc., Massachusetts, USA.

2.      Principles of Development, Wolpert, Beddington, Brockes, Jessell, Lawrence, Meyerowitz, (3rd Ed., 2006), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, INDIA.

3.      Analysis of Biological Development, Kalthoff, (2nd Ed., 2000), McGraw-Hill Science, New Delhi, INDIA.

4.      Balinsky, B.I.2004. An Introduction to Embryology. W.B.SaundersCo., Philadelphia.

5.      Berril, N.J. 1979. Developmental Biology.Tata McGraw-Hill Pub.Co.Ltd.,New Delhi.

6.      Gilbert, S.F. 2006. Developmental Biology (9thedn).Sinauer Associates Inc., Publishers, Masachusettes, USA

7.      Hopper, A.F. and Hart, N.H.1985. Foundations of Animal Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

8.      Lewis Wolpert. 2007. Principles of Development. Oxford University Press.Oxford

9.      Saunders, J.W.1982. Developmental Biology-Patterns,Principles and Problems. Macmillan Publishing Co.,New York.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Subramanian, T. 2002. Developmental Biology.Alpha Science International Ltd.,New Delhi

2.      Sunstard,D.P., Simmons, M. J. and J.B Jenkins.1997. Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and sons, New York.

3.      Wolpert L. and C. Tickle. 2011. Principles of Development.(4thedn). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO441A - APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To define applied entomology and classifying insects according to their economic importance; introduce students to the ecology and biology of insects of medical and agricultural importance; provide students the opportunities to understand insect pest management techniques such as cultural, physical, Biological, chemical, IPM etc.; provide students with adequate knowledge on types of insecticides and problem associated with their use; and equip students on practical application of pesticides/insecticides and maintenance of pesticide equipment

Learning Outcome

Carryout different components of integrated pest management to reduce pest population below economic injury level; recognise different types of insecticide currently used today; formulate pesticides and applied it on pest with the aid of application equipment; give report on success of the application method and apply first aids in case of insecticide poison

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Insect Pests
 

Kinds of pests (major and minor) – Key pests, sporadic pests, endemic pests, exotic pests, epidemic and pandemic pests, seasonal pests, occasional pests, regular pests, persistent pests. Causes of pest outbreak.Pest resurgence and replacement (secondary pest outbreak). Causes and management of resurgence and replacement. Forecasting pest outbreaks and surveillance (Short term and long term forecasting); forecasting based on observations – climatic and empirical factors. Types of damage caused by insect pest to crops (Injury by chewing, piercing, sucking insects, internal feeders, subterranean insects, to stored products and indirect effect of feeding).

Life history and control measures of boll worm, rhinocerous beetle, Aphid, thrips, black turig borer, tea mosquito bug, root borer, scale insect, mealy bug, leaf hopper, helopeltis, cutworm, rice weevil, rusted flower beetle of paddy, coconut, cotton, sugar cane, and in stored products; Termites – life history, damage and control measures.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Basic Principles of Insect Control
 

Integrated pest management – definition, IPM in agro ecosystem, Preventive practice, therapeutic practice, guidelines for developing IPM. Prophylactic methods. Curative methods- Cultural methods; Mechanical methods; Physical methods; Legal methods. Biological control- Parasites, Parasitoids, Predators. Autocidal control – Sterile male technique, Chemo sterilants, pest management with pheromones. Insect growth regulators (IGRS), Insect growth hormones and mimics. Insect repellents –Insect antifeedants, Insect attractants – Application, advantages and disadvantages of control methods. Ecological backclash- pest population resurgence and replacement.  Economic dimensions of biological control; merits and demerits; Important biological control projects undertaken in India against insect pests 

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Chemical Control
 

Insecticide formulations, Insecticide appliances and applications; Classification of insecticides – based on mode of entry, mode of action  chemical nature, toxicity-; Inorganic compounds (Arsenic, fluoride and sulphur compounds) Synthetic organic insecticides (Organochlorine compounds ,DDT, BHC, Endosulfan – heptachlor, dieldrin).Organo phosphorous insecticides –(monocrotophos, tetra ethyl pyrophosphate, parathion, carbamates – carbaryl, carbofuran), Synthetic pyrethroids – definition, uses as insecticides, mode of action (pyrethrin, allethrin). Fumigants – definition, examples, methods of fumigation, hazards, precautions, advantages; Insecticide synergists Botanical insecticides –. (nicotine, rotenone, pyrethrum and neem) Ethnobotanical traditions.–Pesticide impact on wildlife and human health. Pesticide regulations act.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Vectors of Domestic Animals and Man
 

Insect vectors of human diseases belonging to diptera, anoplura, syphonoptera (self-study systematic and biology); Identification, nature of attack, and control measures of insect pest of domestic animals – Acarina (ticks and mites).

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Beneficial Insects
 

Biology and rearing of Honey bees, Silk worm, lac insect; Insects of forensic importance – crime detection using entomological science.; Insects of medical importance. Molecular techniques in forensic entomology

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Apple, J.L. and R.R. Smith .1976. Integrated Pest Management. Plenum Press, New York.

2.      Awasthi, V.B. 2002. Introduction to General and Applied Entomology (2nd edn). Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur.

3.      Byrd, J.H and J.LCastner (Eds).2000. Forensic Entomology: The utility of arthropods  in  legal investigations, CRCPress,London

4.      Dent, D.1991. Insect Pest Management. CAB International, UK

5.      GhoshM.R. 1989. Concepts of Insect Control. Wiley Eastern Ltd. Bangalore and New Delhi

6.      Kettle, D.S.1995. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. CAB International.

7.      Metcalf, G.L. and W.P. Flint.1962. Destructive and Useful Insects, their habits and control. Tata

8.      McGraw Hill Publ. Co Ltd. New york

9.      Mullen, G. and Durden, L. (Eds).2002. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press.

10.  Nayar, K.K., Ananthakrishnan, T.N. and B.V. David. 1976. General and Applied Entomology. Tata McGraw Hill Publ. Co. Ltd New Delhi

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Patton, W.S. and Crag, F.N. 1973. A Textbook of Medical Entomology. International Books and Periodicals, New Delhi

2.      Pedigo, L.P. 1996. Entomology and Pest Management Practice. Hall India, Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi

3.      Ramakrishna Ayyer, R.V. 1963. A Handbook of Economic Entomology of South India. Govt of Madras  Publications Service, M.W.1996.Medical Entomology for Students. Chapman and Hall, UK

4.      Smith, K.V.G.1986. A Manual of Forensic Entomology. British Museum Natural History.

5.      Rao, V.P. Ghani, M.A., Sankaran T and Mathur, K.C. 1971. A Review of Biological Control of Insects and Other Pest in South East Asia and Pacific region. CAB, England.

6.      Srivastava, K.P.1996. A Textbook of Applied Entomology Vol. I and II. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana,New Delhi

7.      Thacker, J.R.M. 2002. An Introduction to Arthropod Pest Control. Cambridge University Press, UK

8.      Wall, Richard and Sheares, David.1998. Veterinary Entomology. Chapman and Hall.

9.      Walter G. 2003. Insect Pest Management and Ecological Research. Cambridge University Press, UK.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO441B - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND WILDLIFE BIOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Students will be able to:

Ø   Discuss the biology of wild vertebrates and identify and compare appropriate methods of studying and/or monitoring their physiology, ecology, and populations.

Ø   Discuss, evaluate, and apply scientific principles to the ecology and conservation of wild vertebrates.

Learning Outcome

Students will be able to:

Ø  Apply a conceptual framework to solve problems in animal ecology and make informed management decisions.

Ø  Discuss appropriate ecological, mathematical, and statistical concepts and methods to interpret, understand and communicate wildlife ecology and conservation data.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Ecosystem
 

Review of the concept of ecosystem – pond and Forest as examples of natural ecosystem. Energetics in an ecosystem – Energy flow, Trophic level and structure in ecosystem, Food chain, Ecological pyramids- Review of Bio-geo Chemical cycles.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Limiting Factors
 

Concept of Limiting factors - Liebig’s law of the minimum – Shelford’s law of tolerance. Population and Community Ecology: Natality, Mortality, Growth rate as factors determining the population density- Population interactions. Types of community- Structure – Community Succession, Homeostasis.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Habitat and resource ecology
 

Wetland Ecology Freshwater habitat – Marine habitat – Estuarine habitat –. Coastal and Marine Management-Deep sea adaptations Terrestrial habitat- desert ecology, High Altitude Ecology, Landscape Ecology, Types of Forests: Concept, classification, Non-Renewable and Renewable resources- Conventional and Non- Conventional source and energy – Conservation and management.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Wild life biology
 

Habitat diversity of Indian wildlife and faunal zonation; Endemic species, Important Indian fauna and their distribution: Asiatic Lion, Indian Tiger, Indian one horned Rhinoceros, Indian Elephant, Golden Langur, Lion-tailed Macaque, Red Panda, Brow Antler Deer, Indian Wild Buffalo, Crocodile, Great Indian Bustard, Dolphin

Capturing and marking techniques – entrapping, darting, tagging and banding, Conservation and management: In-situ conservation and Ex-situ conservation; Regional, National and global Conservation efforts and legal aspects: National and international conventions – CITES, TRAFFIC; Forest laws and wildlife laws in wildlife conservation; Rio Protocol, Rio 20+ , Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Gir Lion Project, Crocodile Breeding Projects, Project Hangul(1972). Sampling forest ecosystems and analyzing the data collected. Scat analysis, camera trapping

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Wild Life Management and Restoration
 

Wildlife conservation and management practices tour, (RS and GIS) ,Conservation Breeding and Wildlife Utilization, Field techniques in Wildlife studies, Human Dimensions in Wildlife Management Wildlife Health Management, Wildlife Forensics, Mammalogy, Ornithology, Herpetology and Ichthyology, Joint forest management. Forest spatial structure, Fire ecology: effects on forest dynamics, Field Ethics: Migration Corridors- Man Animal Conflict-Environment Impact Assessment (EIA). Wild life research institutes and conservation organizations.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      DasmannRF, Wildlife Biology, Wiley Publication, New York.

2.      Krishnan M, India’s Wildlife, Bombay Natural History Society, India.

3.      Nair SM, Endangered animals of India, National Book Trust, India.

4.      NoenAN, Wildlife Ecology: An Analytical Approach, WM Freeman and Co, New York.

5.      Shah JH ,Introduction to Wildlife Management, McGraw Hill, New York.

6.      Usher MB, Wildlife Conservation and Evaluation Chapman and Hall, London.

7.      Fundamentals of Ecology by Eugene P. ODUM (1972), W.B. Saunders Company, London.

8.      Environmental Biology by Michael Reiss and Jenny Chapman, 2000. Cambridge Press, UK.

9.      An Introduction to Ecology and Population by Emmel THOMAS, C. (1973), Notron, NY.

10.  Fundamentals of Ecology by DASH, M.C., 1993. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Principles of Ecotoxicology by BUTLER, O.C., 1978. John Wiley & Sons, USA.

2.      Environment and Ecology by Majid Husain, 2015, Access Publishing

3.      Population Ecology, by KirtiAgarwal, GAURAV BOOK CENTRE PVT LTD

4.      Casarett and Doulls’s 1980. Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons.. II (Eds.) Macmillan publishing co., Inc, New York.

5.      Butler, G.C. 198\78, Principles of Ecotoxicology. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

6.      Fumi Matsumura, 1980. Toxicology of Insecticides. Plenum Press, New York and London.

7.      Foster L. Mayer, Donald J. Versteeg, Michael, J. McKee and Barnett A. Ratlner, 1992,

8.      Biomarkers, physiological and non-specific biomarkers. Lewis publishers, London.

9.      SambasivaRaoK.R.S. 1999. Pesticide impact on fish metabolism. (Eds.) Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi

10.  Gupta, P.K. 1985. Modern toxicology Vol. II. Metropolitan Book co. (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 14. Thomas J. Haley and William O. Berndt, 1987. Handbook of toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO442A - AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To become familiar with the design, operation and practical aspects of extensive and intensive culture facilities, to understand species?]specific culture requirements and maintaining optimum culture conditions,   to become familiar feeds and feeding; stocking, transport, and harvest techniques; marketing and economics; disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment etc.

Learning Outcome

Students will have the level of expertise information in aquaculture production, design, aquaculture health, feed technology and feeding, fishing, fishing management, applied sciences, processing and evaluation. 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:15
Inland Fishery Resources
 

Basics, Scope and importance of Aquaculture- Indian Fisheries – World Fisheries. Freshwater and brackish water fishery resources – Pond, Lakes, Tanks, Estuaries, brackish waterlagoons, wetlands and mangroves. Major riverine fisheries in India. Peninsular rivers and its fishery diversity .Reservoir fisheries – classification of reservoirs. Methods of enhancement of productivity. Reservoir fisheries of Karnataka.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:15
Capture Fisheries & Culture Fisheries
 

Fishing gear- Hook and line, Long line; Cast net, Scoop net, Gill net, Trawl net, Fishing craft: Catamaran, Dingy, Dugout canoe, Outrigger canoe, Mechanized boat. Sole fish fishery; Shell fish fishery: Mussels, Oysters and Clams;North Indian plains with those of Southern peninsula; Dams, Impoundment and their impact on the riverine fishery. Freshwater Fish Culture: Aquatic weeds and their control; Aquatic pests in the fish farm and their control; Site selection for a fish farm; Types of ponds in a self sustainable fish farm; Bunds, inlets, outlets and monks; Management of fish farm ponds: manuring, liming, stocking, supplementary feeding and harvesting; Composite culture systems of India, China, Israel and Europe. Culture systems- Monoculture, Monosex culture, Cage culture, Pen culture, Integrated culture.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:15
Aqua farm engineering
 

Selection of site, designing, layout and construction of aqua farms-basic introduction to culture techniques-modern approach of composite fish culture-Integrated fish farming. Live feeds-ingredients and their selection- formulation and preparation of feeds-addition of probiotics and probiotics in formulate feeds.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:15
Modern trends in aquaculture
 

Fish genetics- gynogenesis and androgenesis-Induced polyploidy-fish breeding and hybridization-Role of Ovaprim, Ovatide in induced breeding. Cryopreservation techniques for sperms Application of remote sensing in conservation of management of fish faunal diversity-vaccines for aquaculture-Identification of Bacterial and viral pathogen. Fisheries research institute in India, fishery byproducts, fish transportation and marketing.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Fisheries research planning and Management in developing countries- V.R.P.Sinha-  International Books and Periodicals services (IBS)-New Delhi.

2.      Live feeds in Marine Aquaculture- L.A.McEvoy and J.G.Stottrup-Blackwell publishing company, UK.

3.       Aquaculture Principles and Practices-T.V.R.Pillay, 2005, Fishing News Books, USA.

4.      Fish and fisheries of India-V.G.Jingran-1975, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi.

5.      Biology of finfish and shellfish-SCSC publishers-Howrah.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Fisheries research planning and Management in developing countries- V.R.P.Sinha-  International Books and Periodicals services (IBS)-New Delhi.

2.      Live feeds in Marine Aquaculture- L.A.McEvoy and J.G.Stottrup-Blackwell publishing company, UK.

3.       Aquaculture Principles and Practices-T.V.R.Pillay, 2005, Fishing News Books, USA.

4.      Fish and fisheries of India-V.G.Jingran-1975, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi.

5.      Biology of finfish and shellfish-SCSC publishers-Howrah.

Evaluation Pattern

Internal assessment (CIAs): 50% (CIA1-10%, CIA2- 25%, CIA3- 10% and Attendance- 5%)

End Semester Examination (ESE)- 50%

Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO442B - FORENSIC BIOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The Forensic Biology course will attract those with an interest in the applicaton of basic sciences and common sense to the investigation of crime and analysis of curcial evidences. The program provides an intellectually challenging study of the full range of forensic applications, mainly Forensic Biology. 

Learning Outcome

This course will lead students into a lifelong fascination with human biology and the scientific investigations of the crime. Also will be usefull in protecting and securing crime scene and evidences when its needed.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE AND FORENSIC BIOLOGY
 

 

 

 

Forensic Science:, Definition of Forensic Science,  Scope of Forensic Science, Need for forensic Science, Basic Principles and significance, Tools and Techniques of Forensic Science, History & Development of Forensic Science, CFSL, FSL, GEQD, NICFS, Central detective training school, NCRB (Maintenance of crime records), NPA, Mobile Forensic Science Laboratory                                                    

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
BRANCHES OF FORENSIC SCIENCE AND ITS USES
 

Forensic Physics, Forensic Ballistic & Photography, Forensic Toxicology, Forensic Biology, Forensic Chemistry, Forensic Psychology, Forensic Dentistry, Forensic Engineering, Crime Definition and Causation, Modus Operandi and its role in crime investigation crime scene, types of crime scene, crime scene characteristics Protection and recording of Crime scene, Search of physical clues, preservation, Packing and forwarding of physical clues, processing of crime scene, blood spattering and pattern analysis.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:40
CRIME & CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATIONS
 

 

Introduction, History and nature of Forensic Biology,  General Definitions and concepts, Historical developments,  Animals, Plants and Microorganisms in Legal Investigations. The Microscope: Parts of compound microscope, Application of Polarized light methods to hair and fiber analysis. Koehler illumination, refractive index determination, crystal morphology and optics, and birefringence. Particle characterization, including fibers and hair. Magnification, field of view, working distances and depth of focus Crystallography of fibers, isotropy vs. anisotropy, polarized light, refractive index, color and pleochroism Crossed polars, birefringence, Forensic biological applications of scanning electron microscope, Electrophoresis General overview, Principles and modes of electrophoresis, Application of capillary electrophoresis in DNA typing.     

 

Forensic Entomology: Introduction, general entomology and arthropod biology, Insects of forensic importance,  Collection of entomological evidence during death investigations,  The role of aquatic insects in forensic investigations,  Insect succession on carrion and its relationship to determine time since death, its application to Forensic Entomology.

 

Wild Life Forensics: Importance, Protected and endangered species of animals and plants, Identification of wild life materials such as skin, fur bones, nails, horn and teeth by conventional and modern methods, identification of pug marks of various animals

 

Forensic Botany: Introduction, types, location, collection evaluation and forensic significance Wood: Type of wood and their identification and comparison,  Leaves: Identification of various types of leaves and their anatomy, methods of comparison,  Pollen : Structure, function, methods of identification and comparison,  Diatoms: Nature, location structure, extraction from various body tissues, including bone marrow, preparation of slides, methods of identification and comparison, forensic significance.     

Hair and Fibres: Morphology of hair Cuticle cortex and medulla area of hair, Three phases of hair growth, Distinction between animal and human hair,  Hair features useful for microscopic comparison of human hair, Collection of forensic hair evidence,  Difference between natural and synthetic fibres, Properties of fibers useful for forensic comparison, Collection of fiber evidence               

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Nanda, B.B. and Tewari, R.K; Forensic Science in India- A vision for the twenty first century, Select Publisher, New Delhi  (2001)

2. James, S.H. and Nordby, J. J.; Forensic Science; An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, CRC Press, USA (2003)

3. Saperstein: Criminalities – An Introduction to Forensic Science, Prentice Hall Inc. USA (1995)

4. C. G. G. Aitken and D. A. Stoney; The use of statistics in Forensic Science, Ellis Harwood Limited, England (1991)

5. Bridges BC; Criminal Investigation, Practical Finger Printing, Thumb Impressions, Hand writing Expert testimony opinion Evidence, University Book Agency, Allahabad (2000)

6. Essential Forensic Biology: Animals, Plants and Microorganisms in Legal Investigation by Allen Gunn

7. The biochemistry of semen and male reproductive tract Thaddeus Mann Methuen &Co. Ltd. London 1964

8.  Biology methods Manula Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory London

9. Mathew’s textile fibres their physical, microscopic and chemical properties Herbert R. Mauersberger John Wiley New York 1954

10. Plant Anatomy B.P. Pandey

11. Forensic Examination of Hair (Taylor & Francis Forensic Science Series)by James R. Robertson (Editor)

12. Forensic entomology: the utility of arthropods in legal investigations By Jason H. Byrd, James L. Castner Published by CRC Press, 2001

13.  Forensic botany: principles and applications to criminal casework By Heather Miller Coyle Published by CRC Press, 2004

14. Pillay, V.V., Handbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology , 12th ed., Paras Publication 2001.

15. Modi, J. P., Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology , M.M. Tripathi Publication, (2001)

16. Parikh, C.K. , Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology

17. Reddy Narayn, . M., Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology

 

18. James, P.J.: Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Elsevier, 2005

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. Essential Forensic Biology: Animals, Plants and Microorganisms in Legal Investigation by Allen Gunn

2. James, S.H. and Nordby, J. J.; Forensic Science; An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, CRC Press, USA (2003)

3. Forensic entomology: the utility of arthropods in legal investigations By Jason H. Byrd, James L. Castner Published by CRC Press, 2001

Evaluation Pattern

CIA-1 20%; CIA-25%;CIA3-20%;Attendance 5%;

ESE: 50%

 Question pattern for ESE: Section A: Answer any 8 questions out 10 (5 x 8 = 40) (Each questions carry 5 marks), Section B: Answer any 5 questions out of 7 (12 x 5 = 60) (Each questions carry 12 marks)

MZOO442C - ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Animals and animal products are used to support research by providing products that help technicians to grow cells, viruses, and microbes in culture. Biotechnologists also use animals to produce antibodies, interferons, vaccines etc. Cultured cells are finding innumerable applications in recent days. The paper describes the concepts of cell culture in animal systems. Methods of IVF and its significance in animals and human beings also forms part of this paper. The potential of embryonic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells in creating tissues for transplant and the ethical issues will be discussed. Animal biotechnology focuses on the manipulation of genes in animals – introduction and knockout of genes and their effects, different systems available for the production of sustainable industrial products and important therapeutic and diagnostic drugs and vaccines for medical and veterinary use.

Learning Outcome