Department of
LIFE-SCIENCES






Syllabus for
Master of Science in Botany
Academic Year  (2019)

 
1 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT131 PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT151 PRACTICAL IN PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY AND GENETICS 8 4 100
MLIF131 MICROBIOLOGY 4 4 100
MLIF132 BIOCHEMISTRY 4 4 100
MLIF134 GENETICS 4 4 100
MLIF135 MATHEMATICS FOR BIOLOGISTS 2 2 50
MLIF136 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2 2 50
MLIF151 PRACTICAL IN MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 8 4 100
2 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT231 CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT232 ARCHEGONIATE 4 4 100
MBOT251 PRACTICAL IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ARCHEGONIATE 8 4 100
MLIF232 GENETIC ENGINEERING 4 4 100
MLIF233 BIOANALYTICAL TOOLS AND BIOINFORMATICS 4 4 100
MLIF235 BIOSTATISTICS 3 3 100
MLIF251 PRACTICAL IN GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND BIOINFORMATICS 8 4 100
3 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT331 ARCHEGONIATAE 4 4 100
MBOT332 PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY 4 4 100
MBOT333 PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING 4 4 100
MBOT351 PRACTICAL IN PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY, REGULATORY AFFAIRS AND ARCHEGONIATE 8 4 100
MBOT352 PRACTICAL IN PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY, PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING 8 4 100
MLIF331 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS 4 4 100
MLIF381 SUMMER INTERNSHIP 0 2 50
4 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT431 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT432 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 4 4 100
MBOT441A FLORISTICS AND NEW TRENDS IN TAXONOMY 4 4 100
MBOT441B FOOD, AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT441C PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY 4 4 100
MBOT451 PRACTICAL IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 8 4 100
MBOT452A PRACTICAL IN FLORISTICS AND NEW TRENDS IN TAXONOMY 4 2 50
MBOT452B PRACTICAL IN FOOD, AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 4 2 50
MBOT452C PRACTICAL IN PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY 4 2 50
MBOT481 DISSERTATION 0 8 150
        

  

Assesment Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

Examination And Assesments

The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts; (a) internal evaluation and (b) external evaluation. 50% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the remaining 50% to external evaluation and the ratio and weightage between internal and external is 1:1.  (a) Internal evaluation: The internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent system involving periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance in respect of theory courses and based on written tests, lab skill/records/viva and attendance in respect of practical courses.

Department Overview:
The department of Life Sciences is a unique department in the University where multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teaching and research in life sciences have established permanent roots. It is a diverse discipline that covers all branches of Zoology, Botany and Biotechnology in a dominant manner. This is one of the oldest departments of Christ University (formerly Christ College) started from the inception of the Institution in 1969. This serves as a valuable foundation to many students for understanding cellular and molecular level organization in living beings. The uniqueness of the department essentially lies in the fact that within its faculty there are experts and active researchers representing almost all areas of modern biology. Two research laboratories have been set under the department of Life Sciences in Kengeri Campus to promote the research in plant Science. Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory focuses on the extraction, purification, characterization and identification of secondary metabolites present in plants. Particularly, we focus on the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Nothapodytes etc. Plant Tissue Culture laboratory focuses on developing biotechnological approaches for the production of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. We also aim at the rapid multiplication of medicinal plants through plant tissue culture in this laboratory.
Mission Statement:
To uphold the core values of the university and to build up a ?Life Science Community,? for the betterment of humanity with their knowledge, ethics and entrepreneurship.
Introduction to Program:
The core biology subjects like Cytology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Statistics etc. which are offered in first year makes the students appreciate the implications of these subjects in botanical studies. Modules on Taxonomy, Analytical Techniques, Plant Tissue Culture and Phytochemistry would make them acquire skills in doing research in Universities and R & D Centres and also makes them employable in herbal drug industry. All the courses in the programme are carefully designed to equip the students for competitive exams like CSIR NET, SET etc. and also to write research proposals for grants.
Program Objective:
To maintain a high level of scientific excellence in botanical research with specific emphasis on the role of plants in the structure and functioning of terrestrial and marine (including estuarine) communities and ecosystems. To develop problem solving skills in students and encourage them to carry out innovative research projects thereby enkindling in them the spirit of knowledge creation. To equip the students to perform functions that demand higher competence in national/international organizations.

MBOT131 - PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

In this course we survey the biological diversity of modern algae and fungi, with an eye toward understanding why studying plant diversity is important in our  modern society. We consider first the traditional classification of algae and fungi, and how this system has  been revolutionized by phylogenetic analyses of genetic and now genomic data. We then turn to study the evolutionary processes that generate biodiversity and the ecological processes that shape this  diversity.

Learning Outcome

After completing the course students will develop a timeline of the main events in the history of photosynthetic organisms, an overview of their diversity, and a conceptual understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this diversity

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:2
Introduction
 

(a) History of algal classification. Detailed study of the classification by F. E. Fritsch and G. M. Smith. Modern trends and criteria for algal classification.

(b) Centers of algal research in India. Contributions of Indian phycologists – M O P Iyengar, V Krishnamurthy, T V Desikachary.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
General features of Algae
 

 (a) Details of habit, habitat and distribution of Algae.

 (b) Algal components: Cell wall, flagella, eye-spot, pigments, pyrenoid, photosynthetic products.

 (c) Range of thallus structure and their evolution.

 (d) Reproduction in algae: Different methods of reproduction, evolution of sex organs.

 (e) Major patterns of life cycle and post fertilization stages in Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta.

 (f) Fossil algae.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:2
Algal ecology and Economic Importance
 

Ecological importance of Algae. Productivity of fresh water and marine environment. Algae in

symbiotic association, Algae in polluted habitat, Algal indicators, Algal blooms.

Economic importance of Algae

 (a) Algae as food, fodder, biofertilizer, medicine, industrial uses, and other useful products. Harmful effects of algae.

 (b) Use of Algae in experimental studies.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:4
Algal biotechnology
 

 (a) Methods and techniques of collection, preservation and staining of Algae.

 (b) Algal culture: Importance, methods; Algal culture media.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:2
Mycology- General introduction
 

General characters of Fungi and their significance. Principles of classification of fungi, Classifications by G C Ainsworth (1973) and C. J. Alexopoulos.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:18
Thallus structure and reproduction in Fungi
 

 Mycelial structure and reproduction of;

 (a) Myxomycota –Acrasiomycetes, Hydromyxomycetes, Myxomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes.

 (b) Mastigomycotina - Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Oomycetes.

 (c) Zygomycotina - Zygomycetes, Trichomycetes.

 (d) Ascomycotina - Hemiascomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, Plectomycetes, Discomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, Loculoascomycetes.

 (e) Basidiomycotina - Teliomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Gastromycetes.

 (f) Deuteromycotina - Blastomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes.

 (g) Types of fruiting bodies in fungi.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:5
Fungal associations and their significance
 

 (a) Symbionts - Lichens, Mycorrhiza, Fungus-insect mutualism.

 (b) Parasites - Common fungal parasites of plants, humans, insects and nematodes.

 (c) Saprophytes - Fungal decomposition of organic matter, coprophilous fungi, cellulolytic fungi, lignolytic fungi.

 (d) Agricultural significance of Fungi - Mycoparasite, mycoherbicide.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:15
Crop Pathology
 

i: Introduction to crop pathology: Classification of plant diseases based on; (a) Major causal agents - biotic and abiotic, (b) General symptoms.

ii: Process of infection and pathogenesis:

 (a) Penetration and entry of pathogen into host tissue – mechanical, physiological and enzymatic.

 (b) Host-parasite interaction, enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis.

 iii: Defense mechanism in plants:   Pre-existing structural and biochemical defense mechanisms, lack of essential nutrients. Induced structural and biochemical defense mechanisms, inactivation of pathogen enzymes and toxins, altered biosynthetic pathways.

 iv: Transmission of plant disease: Spread and transmission of plant diseases by wind, water, seeds and vectors.

 v: Plant disease management: Exclusion, eradication and protection. Chemical means of disease control – common fungicides, antibiotics and nematicides. Biological means of disease control. Biotechnological approaches to disease resistance: Fungi in agricultural biotechnology, control of fungal plant pathogens by mycofungicides. Transgenic approaches to disease resistance.

 vi: Major diseases in plants: 

 (a) Cereals: Rice - blast disease, bacterial blight; Wheat - black rust disease.

 (b) Vegetables: Chilly - leaf spot; Ladies finger - vein clearing disease.

 (c) Fruits: Banana - bacterial leaf blight, leaf spot; Mango - Anthracnose; Citrus - bacterial canker; Papaya – mosaic.

 (d) Spices: Ginger - rhizome rot; Pepper - quick wilt; Cardamom - marble mosaic disease.

 (e) Oil seeds: Coconut - grey leaf spot, bud rot disease.

 (f) Rubber yielding: Hevea braziliensis - abnormal leaf fall, powdery mildew.

 (g) Sugar yielding: Sugarcane - red rot; root knot nematode.

 (h) Cash crops: Arecanut - nut fall disease.

 (i) Beverages: Tea - blister blight; Coffee - rust.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Chapman V J (1962).  The Algae. Macmillan & Co. Ltd.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1971).  Cryptogamic Botany (Vol. 1): Algae and Fungi. Tata McGraw Hill Edition.

3. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

4. Jim Deacon (2006).  Fungal Biology (IV Edn). Blackwell Publishing.

5. L N Nair (2010).  Methods of microbial and plant biotechnology. New Central Book agency (P) Ltd.

6. Kanika Sharma. Manual of microbiology: Tools and techniques.

7. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. F E Fritsch (Vol. I, II) (1977).  The structure and reproduction of Algae. Cambridge University Press.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1951). Manual of Phycology

3. Harnold C Bold, Michael J Wynne (1978). Introduction to Algae: Structure and reproduction, Prentice Hall.

4. Kanika Sharma. Manual of microbiology: Tools and techniques.

5. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

Evaluation Pattern

The evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA-1 (10%), CIA-2 (Mid-Semester Examination) (25%), CIA-3 (10%), attendance (5%) and End-Semester Examination (50%).

MBOT151 - PRACTICAL IN PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY AND GENETICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

In this course we survey the biological diversity of modern algae and fungi and the methodology of their identification, with an eye toward understanding why studying to identify plant diversity is important in our modern society. We consider first the traditional classification of algae and fungi, and how this system has been revolutionized by phylogenetic analyses of genetic and now genomic data. We then turn to study the evolutionary processes that generate biodiversity and the ecological processes that shape this diversity.

Learning Outcome

After completing the course students will develop a timeline of the main events in the history of photosynthetic organisms, an overview of their diversity, and a conceptual understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this diversity

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:52
Phycology
 

1. Critical study of diagnostic features and identification of the following genera based on morphological, anatomical and reproductive parts;

(a) Cyanophyceae - Gleocapsa, Gleotrichia, Spirulina, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Anabaena, Nostoc, Rivularia, Scytonema.

(b) Chlorophyceae - Chlamydomonas, Gonium, Eudorina, Pandorina, Volvox, Ecballocystis, Tetraspora, Ulothrix, Microspora, Ulva, Shizomeris, Cladophora, Pithophora. Coleochaete, Chaetophora, Drapernaldia, Drapernaldiopsis, Trentepohlia, Fritschiella, Cephaleuros, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, Zygnema, Mougeotia, Sirogonium. Desmedium, Bryopsis, Acetabularia, Codium, Caulerpa, Halimeda, Neomeris, Chara, Nitella.

      (c) Xanthophyceae – Vaucheria.

      (d) Bacillariophyceae - Biddulphia, Pinnularia.

(e) Phaeophyceae - Ectocarpus, Colpomenia, Hydroclathrus, Dictyota, Padina, Sargassum, Turbinaria.

(f) Rhodophyceac - Brtrachospermum, Gelidium, Amphiroa, Gracilaria, Polysiphonia.

2. Students are to collect and identify algae from different habitat or visit an Algal research station.

3. Prepare and submit a report of the field work/research station visit.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:36
Mycology
 

1. Critical study of the following types by preparing suitable micropreparations; Stemonitis, Physarum, Saprolegnia, Phytophthora, Albugo, Mucor, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pilobolous, Saccharomyces, Xylaria, Peziza, Phyllochora, Puccinia, Termitomyces, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Polyporus, Lycoperdon, Dictyophora, Geastrum, Cyathus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotia, Graphis, Parmelia, Cladonia, Usnea.

2. Isolation of fungi from soil and water by culture plate technique.

3. Estimation of mycorrhizal colonization in root.

4. Collection and identification of common field mushrooms (5 types).

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:16
Crop Pathology
 

1. Make suitable micropreparations and identify the diseases mentioned with due emphasis on symptoms and causative organisms.

2.      2. Isolation of pathogens from diseased tissues (leaf, stem and fruit) by serial dilution method.

3.      3. Collection and preservation of specimens from infected plants. Submit 5 herbarium sheets/live

4.      specimens along with a report.

5.      4. Tests for seed pathology – seed purity test.

5. Calculation of Spore load on seeds using Haemocytometer.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:16
Genetics
 

      Genetic Problems in Recombination and Linkage

      Genetic problems in quantitative genetics

      Genetic problems in population genetics

•    Genetic problems in pedigree analysis

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Chapman V J (1962).  The Algae. Macmillan & Co. Ltd.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1971).  Cryptogamic Botany (Vol. 1): Algae and Fungi. Tata McGraw Hill Edition.

3. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

2. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

 

MLIF131 - MICROBIOLOGY (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

 

Microbes play a very significant role in the lives of higher organisms. The paper surveys the features of microbes like bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae and protozoa in order to make the students understand their biology so as to manipulate them. This course fulfils the basic knowledge in microbiology for those students who wish to pursue career in allied health fields and other technical programs.

 

Learning Outcome

 

 This course will make the students adapt in the structure and functions of these microbes which in turn will give them confidence to work using these organisms. The students will become competent for jobs in dairy, pharmaceutical, industrial and clinical research.

 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Introductory Microbiology
 

 

History of Microbiology, Microscopy – Light, Phase contrast, Fluorescence & Electron microscopy – TEM and SEM, Physical and Chemical control of microorganisms, Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms, Bergey’s manual, Staining techniques - Gram’s, acid fast, capsular, flagellar and endospore staining. Microbial Taxonomy: Pure culture techniques (Streaking, spread plate, pour plate, serial dilution), Identification of microorganisms – Morphological, Biochemical, serological and molecular techniques.

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:5
Prokaryotic cell structure
 

Bacterial cell structure, classification based on shape and arrangement of cells, cell wall, flagella, pili and capsule – structure & functions, endospore formation, features of mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Prions and diseases caused. 

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Physiology of Microorganisms
 

Microbial metabolism: Aerobic, anaerobic respiration, fermentation, Catabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Bacterial photosynthesis, oxidation of inorganic molecules. Growth curve, factors affecting growth, Nutritional classification, Microbial associations (Mutualism, Syntrophism, Proto-cooperation, Commensalism, Ammensalism, Predation, Parasitism, Saprophytism, Satellitism and Endozoic microbes), Stress physiology: effect of oxygen toxicity, pH, osmotic pressure, heat shock on bacteria, HSPs, thermophiles, halophiles, alkaliphiles, acidophiles, psychrophiles and barophiles and their adaptations and significance,  Nitrogen fixation mechanisms and genes involved.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:8
Virology
 

Hepatitis B virus. RNA viruses: HIV, bacteriophages-. Lifecycle of Lambda phage. Evolution and mutation of viruses. Cultivation and assay of viruses: Cultivation of viruses in embryonated eggs, experimental animals and cell cultures

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:6
Mycology and Phycology
 

 

Fungi:- Structural features, Ainsworth’s system of classification, salient features of division, reproduction of fungi, fungi as food, as plant pathogens, control measures of fungi, Mycorrhizae- ecto and endomycorrhizae, significance, Algae:- Salient features, classification (Fritsch’s) and reproduction, measurement of algal growth, strain selection and large scale cultivation, Symbiotic algae, use as biofuel.

 

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:5
Pathogenic Microorganisms
 

Major Bacterial diseases – Typhoid, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia and Cholera, Viral diseases - Dengue, Chikungunya, Rabies. Emerging viruses – H1N1, Ebola, Zika. Major parasitic diseases –Malaria, Amoebiasis, Giardiasis- pathogen, lifecycle and treatment measures. Etiology, symptoms and control measures of some plant diseases - Bacterial blight of rice, Late blight of potato, Coconut Root wilt, Ginger Soft Rot, Downy Mildew of Grapes, Rust of Wheat, Red Rot of Sugarcane.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:9
Medical Microbiology
 

Concepts of pathogenesis, virulence and epidemiology, Disease classification - Epidemic, endemic and pandemics, CDC and its role, normal human microflora, gut microbiota and its relevance. Diagnosis and control of infections, Antibiotic – types and mechanism of action, biomedical waste management, nosocomial infections, Drug resistance in bacteria – causes and consequences, super bugs.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:5
Applied Microbiology
 

Microbes in food manufacture (Yeast, Lactobacillus etc), food spoilage (Brucella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Escherichia etc, mycotoxins - aflatoxins, ochratoxins, ergot alkaloids), agriculture (Rhizobium, Trichoderma etc), environmental management, Biodegradation of Xenobiotics - hydrocarbons, pesticides and plastics, Bioleaching of Copper, Iron , Uranium, Gold.

Text Books And Reference Books:

M. J. Pelczar Jr, E. C. S. Chan and N. R. Krieg, Microbiology, 5th ed. New Delhi: Tata McGgraw Hill Education Pvt Ltd., 2004.

 V. B. Rastogi, Biostatistics, New Delhi: Medtec, Scientific International, Pvt. Ltd., 2015.

R. C. Dubey and D. K. Maheswari, Microbiology, New Delhi: S. Chand & Company Ltd., 2010.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

M. T. Madigan. J. M. Martinko. D. Stahl. D. P. Clark, USA: Brock's Biology of Microorganisms 13 ed. Benjamin Cummings. 2010.

R. Ananthanarayan and C. K. J. Paniker, Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology 8thed. Universities Press. 2009.

G. J. Tortora, B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case, An Introduction to Microbiology, 11th ed. USA: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

W. W. Daniel and C. L. Cross, USA: Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 10th ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2012.

P. Lansing, H. John, and K. Donald, Microbiology, 6th ed. Australia: McGraw Hill, 2004.

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

MLIF132 - BIOCHEMISTRY (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The paper is intended to develop understanding and provide scientific basis of the inanimate molecules that constitute living organisms. It also gives a thorough knowledge about the structure and function of biological macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids), and the metabolic and bioenergetic pathways within the cell. Students learn to interpret and solve clinical problems.

Learning Outcome

Upon successful completion of this subject, the students can apply their knowledge of biochemistry to correlate the structure and functional relationships of biomolecules in living organisms. The knowledge of applied biochemistry has vast and diverse applications these days when there is a necessity to diagnose and treat metabolic disorders and diseases.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:8
Foundation of Biochemistry and Bioenergetics
 

Forces and interactions of biomolecules; chemical bonds – Covalent and Ionic bond (bond energy), Stabilizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction.), high energy molecules in living system (ATP, ADP, NAD, NADH, NADPH, FAD, FADH2), Laws of thermodynamics, Concept of free energy, enthalpy, entropy, Coupled reactions, group transfer, biological energy transducers, redox potential.Buffers and Solutions: Concept of pH, pKa, titration curve, acids, bases and buffers, Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation, biological buffer solutions.Principles of thermodynamics; Kinetics, dissociation and association constants; energy rich bonds and weak interactions; Bioenergetics.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Carbohydrates
 

Classification, structure and Properties of mono, oligo and polysaccharides. Chirality and optical activity, stereoisomerism, cyclic structure of monosaccharide, (pyranoses and furanoses), structures of glucose. Absolute and relative configuration (D & L and R & S nomenclature). Disaccharides-structures of Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose, Trehalose, Raffinose. Polysaccharides. Structure and properties of homo and hetero polysaccharides. Storage polysaccharides. (Starch, Glycogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and chitin) Derived sugars- Sugar acids (Aldonic, Aldaric and Saccharic acids), amino sugars. Derivatives of carbohydrates (Glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids, Proteoglycan and glycoproteins).

Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Glycolysis- Energetics and Regulation, Fermentation reactions (Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation), Gluconeogenesis, Reciprocal regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, Citric acid cycle- Energetics and regulation, Glyoxylate cycle. Pentose phosphate pathway.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:3
Oxidative phosphorylation
 

Electron transport chain, Electron transfer reactions in mitochondria, Electron carriers, Ubiquinone, Cytochromes, Iron sulfur centers, Methods to determine sequence of electron carriers, Fractionation of Multi enzyme complexes I, II, III, IV of Mitochondria and their inhibitors, Oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis, Chemiosmotic model, Proton gradient, Structure of ATP synthetase, Mechanism of ATP synthesis, Brown fat, Regulation of Oxidative phosphorylation.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Amino acids and Proteins
 

Amino acids: Structure, properties, classification and functions, reactions of amino acids, modifications of amino acids in proteins, non-protein amino acids.

Proteins- peptide bond, psi and phi angle, Ramachandran's plot, Structural organizations of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, Domains, Motifs & Folds), conformational analysis. Structure and functional classification of proteins. Structure- function relationship. Thermodynamics of protein folding, chaperones and chaperonins, Stability of Protein Structures, examples of  specific proteins; Keratin, Silk fibroin, collagen triple helix and hemoglobin; Denaturation and renaturation of proteins; neurotransmitters, Peptide hormones .

Amino acid and Protein metabolism: Transamination, Deamination, Decarboxylation, basic glutamine and glutamic acid pathways, urea cycle and its regulation, formation of uric acid.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:11
Enzyme kinetics
 

Enzyme nomenclature and classification, Isolation of enzymes. Extraction of soluble and membrane bound enzymes: Purification of enzymes-Criteria for purification; Assay of enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme activity, Isozymes, Coenzymes and cofactor, Metalloenzymes, membrane bound enzymes, Multienzyme complexes, Synthetic enzymes, Ribozymes. Mechanism of enzyme action, Active site and Specificity of enzyme. Theories on enzyme substrate complex. Free energy of enzyme reactions. Steady state kinetics. Michaelis-Menton, Lineweaver–Burk, Edde-Hofstee and Hanes-Woolf equations. Pre-steady state kinetics. Fast kinetics to elucidate the intermediates and rate limiting steps.

Enzyme inhibition: types of inhibitors; Mechanism of enzyme inhibition –competitive, non – competitive, uncompetitive, mixed and irreversible inhibition. Allosteric regulation in metabolic pathways. Applications of enzymes, enzyme engineering (Protein engineering). Immobilization of enzymes and their application.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:7
Lipids
 

Classification- Structure, properties, reactions and biological functions of lipids. Phospholipids, Sphingo and glyco lipids, Steroids-cholesterol-bile salts, steroid hormones,Cerebrosides, lipoamino acids, lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, eicosanoids (Prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxane).Role of lipids in biomembranes.

Metabolism of Lipids: Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Beta oxidation of Fatty acids: activation, transport to mitochondria, metabolic pathway. Oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Alpha and omega oxidation, metabolic disorders (Triglyceridemia, NaymanSacchs Disease).

 

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:3
Nucleic acids
 

Structure and properties- Bases, Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Polynucleotides.

Nucleic acid metabolism: Biosynthesis and regulation of purines and pyrimidines, Denovo and Salvage pathways, biodegradation of purines and pyrimidines.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:8
Vitamins and Hormones
 

Vitamins: Classification, Chemistry and Biological Functions, Fat and water soluble vitamins. Role in metabolism, Vitamins as co-enzymes. Metabolic Disorders –A, B, C, D, K.

Hormones:Autocrine, paracrine and endocrine action. Endocrine glands, Classification of hormones, basic mechanism of hormone action, importance of TSH,T3,T4, Estrogen, Testosterone, HCG, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Progesteron, adrenaline, insulin and glucagon. Hormone imbalance and disorders: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Polycystic Ovarian Disorder PCOD), Insulin Dependent Diabetes.

Plant Growth regulators: Biosynthesis, Physiological role and mechanism of action of plant growth hormones (Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, abscisic acid, Brassinosteroids), receptors and signal transduction (salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways).

Text Books And Reference Books:

Nelson, D. C. and Cox, M.M., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition, W. H. Freeman, 2010.

Voet D., Voet J.G, Biochemistry 4th Edition., John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Elliott, W.H., Elliott, D.C. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 3rd Indian edition, Pub. Oxford.

Mathews, Van Holde and Ahern, Biochemistry by 3rd edition, Pub Pearson education

Berg J.M., Tymoczko J.L. and Stryer L., Biochemistry. 7th edition, W.H. Freeman and Co. New York, 2011.

Kuchel, P.W., Ralston Schaums, G.B. Outlines of Biochemistry 2nd edition Pub: Tata.

Devlin, T.M. (1997). Biochemistry with clinical correlations, Wiley-Liss Inc. NY

Zubey, G.L. Parson, W.W., Vance, D.E. (1994). Principles of Biochemistry WmC Brown publishers. Oxford.

Edwards and Hassall. Biochemistry and Physiology of the cell 2ndEdn. McGraw Hill Co. UK. Ltd.

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

MLIF134 - GENETICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The chapters on genetics make them appreciate the flow of inherited characters from one generation to the other and study about the interaction of different genes in different organisms. The students will also gain knowledge related to quantitative, population and evolutionary genetics, in addition to microbial genetics.

Learning Outcome

The students can apply their knowledge of genetics to selected examples of mutations as exemplified in many diseases and various chromosomal aberration related syndromes.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:8
History of Genetics