Department of
LIFE-SCIENCES






Syllabus for
Master of Science in Botany
Academic Year  (2019)

 
1 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT131 PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT151 PRACTICAL IN PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY AND GENETICS 8 4 100
MLIF136 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2 2 50
2 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT231 CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT232 ARCHEGONIATE 4 4 100
MBOT251 PRACTICAL IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ARCHEGONIATE 8 4 100
MLIF232 GENETIC ENGINEERING 4 4 100
MLIF251 PRACTICAL IN GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND BIOINFORMATICS 8 4 100
3 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT331 ARCHEGONIATAE 4 4 100
MBOT332 PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY 4 4 100
MBOT333 PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING 4 4 100
MBOT351 PRACTICAL IN PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY, REGULATORY AFFAIRS AND ARCHEGONIATE 8 4 100
MBOT352 PRACTICAL IN PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY, PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING 8 4 100
MLIF331 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS 4 4 100
MLIF381 SUMMER INTERNSHIP 0 2 50
4 Semester - 2018 - Batch
Paper Code
Paper
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
MBOT431 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT432 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 4 4 100
MBOT441A FLORISTICS AND NEW TRENDS IN TAXONOMY 4 4 100
MBOT441B FOOD, AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 4 4 100
MBOT441C PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY 4 4 100
MBOT451 PRACTICAL IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 8 4 100
MBOT452A PRACTICAL IN FLORISTICS AND NEW TRENDS IN TAXONOMY 4 2 50
MBOT452B PRACTICAL IN FOOD, AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 4 2 50
MBOT452C PRACTICAL IN PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY 4 2 50
MBOT481 DISSERTATION 0 8 150
        

  

Assesment Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

Examination And Assesments

The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts; (a) internal evaluation and (b) external evaluation. 50% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the remaining 50% to external evaluation and the ratio and weightage between internal and external is 1:1.  (a) Internal evaluation: The internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent system involving periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance in respect of theory courses and based on written tests, lab skill/records/viva and attendance in respect of practical courses.

Department Overview:
The department of Life Sciences is a unique department in the University where multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teaching and research in life sciences have established permanent roots. It is a diverse discipline that covers all branches of Zoology, Botany and Biotechnology in a dominant manner. This is one of the oldest departments of Christ University (formerly Christ College) started from the inception of the Institution in 1969. This serves as a valuable foundation to many students for understanding cellular and molecular level organization in living beings. The uniqueness of the department essentially lies in the fact that within its faculty there are experts and active researchers representing almost all areas of modern biology. Two research laboratories have been set under the department of Life Sciences in Kengeri Campus to promote the research in plant Science. Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory focuses on the extraction, purification, characterization and identification of secondary metabolites present in plants. Particularly, we focus on the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Nothapodytes etc. Plant Tissue Culture laboratory focuses on developing biotechnological approaches for the production of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. We also aim at the rapid multiplication of medicinal plants through plant tissue culture in this laboratory.
Mission Statement:
To uphold the core values of the university and to build up a ?Life Science Community,? for the betterment of humanity with their knowledge, ethics and entrepreneurship.
Introduction to Program:
The core biology subjects like Cytology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Statistics etc. which are offered in first year makes the students appreciate the implications of these subjects in botanical studies. Modules on Taxonomy, Analytical Techniques, Plant Tissue Culture and Phytochemistry would make them acquire skills in doing research in Universities and R & D Centres and also makes them employable in herbal drug industry. All the courses in the programme are carefully designed to equip the students for competitive exams like CSIR NET, SET etc. and also to write research proposals for grants.
Program Objective:
To maintain a high level of scientific excellence in botanical research with specific emphasis on the role of plants in the structure and functioning of terrestrial and marine (including estuarine) communities and ecosystems. To develop problem solving skills in students and encourage them to carry out innovative research projects thereby enkindling in them the spirit of knowledge creation. To equip the students to perform functions that demand higher competence in national/international organizations.

MBOT131 - PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

In this course we survey the biological diversity of modern algae and fungi, with an eye toward understanding why studying plant diversity is important in our  modern society. We consider first the traditional classification of algae and fungi, and how this system has  been revolutionized by phylogenetic analyses of genetic and now genomic data. We then turn to study the evolutionary processes that generate biodiversity and the ecological processes that shape this  diversity.

Learning Outcome

After completing the course students will develop a timeline of the main events in the history of photosynthetic organisms, an overview of their diversity, and a conceptual understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this diversity

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:2
Introduction
 

(a) History of algal classification. Detailed study of the classification by F. E. Fritsch and G. M. Smith. Modern trends and criteria for algal classification.

(b) Centers of algal research in India. Contributions of Indian phycologists – M O P Iyengar, V Krishnamurthy, T V Desikachary.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
General features of Algae
 

 (a) Details of habit, habitat and distribution of Algae.

 (b) Algal components: Cell wall, flagella, eye-spot, pigments, pyrenoid, photosynthetic products.

 (c) Range of thallus structure and their evolution.

 (d) Reproduction in algae: Different methods of reproduction, evolution of sex organs.

 (e) Major patterns of life cycle and post fertilization stages in Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta.

 (f) Fossil algae.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:2
Algal ecology and Economic Importance
 

Ecological importance of Algae. Productivity of fresh water and marine environment. Algae in

symbiotic association, Algae in polluted habitat, Algal indicators, Algal blooms.

Economic importance of Algae

 (a) Algae as food, fodder, biofertilizer, medicine, industrial uses, and other useful products. Harmful effects of algae.

 (b) Use of Algae in experimental studies.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:4
Algal biotechnology
 

 (a) Methods and techniques of collection, preservation and staining of Algae.

 (b) Algal culture: Importance, methods; Algal culture media.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:2
Mycology- General introduction
 

General characters of Fungi and their significance. Principles of classification of fungi, Classifications by G C Ainsworth (1973) and C. J. Alexopoulos.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:18
Thallus structure and reproduction in Fungi
 

 Mycelial structure and reproduction of;

 (a) Myxomycota –Acrasiomycetes, Hydromyxomycetes, Myxomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes.

 (b) Mastigomycotina - Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Oomycetes.

 (c) Zygomycotina - Zygomycetes, Trichomycetes.

 (d) Ascomycotina - Hemiascomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, Plectomycetes, Discomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, Loculoascomycetes.

 (e) Basidiomycotina - Teliomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Gastromycetes.

 (f) Deuteromycotina - Blastomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes.

 (g) Types of fruiting bodies in fungi.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:5
Fungal associations and their significance
 

 (a) Symbionts - Lichens, Mycorrhiza, Fungus-insect mutualism.

 (b) Parasites - Common fungal parasites of plants, humans, insects and nematodes.

 (c) Saprophytes - Fungal decomposition of organic matter, coprophilous fungi, cellulolytic fungi, lignolytic fungi.

 (d) Agricultural significance of Fungi - Mycoparasite, mycoherbicide.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:15
Crop Pathology
 

i: Introduction to crop pathology: Classification of plant diseases based on; (a) Major causal agents - biotic and abiotic, (b) General symptoms.

ii: Process of infection and pathogenesis:

 (a) Penetration and entry of pathogen into host tissue – mechanical, physiological and enzymatic.

 (b) Host-parasite interaction, enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis.

 iii: Defense mechanism in plants:   Pre-existing structural and biochemical defense mechanisms, lack of essential nutrients. Induced structural and biochemical defense mechanisms, inactivation of pathogen enzymes and toxins, altered biosynthetic pathways.

 iv: Transmission of plant disease: Spread and transmission of plant diseases by wind, water, seeds and vectors.

 v: Plant disease management: Exclusion, eradication and protection. Chemical means of disease control – common fungicides, antibiotics and nematicides. Biological means of disease control. Biotechnological approaches to disease resistance: Fungi in agricultural biotechnology, control of fungal plant pathogens by mycofungicides. Transgenic approaches to disease resistance.

 vi: Major diseases in plants: 

 (a) Cereals: Rice - blast disease, bacterial blight; Wheat - black rust disease.

 (b) Vegetables: Chilly - leaf spot; Ladies finger - vein clearing disease.

 (c) Fruits: Banana - bacterial leaf blight, leaf spot; Mango - Anthracnose; Citrus - bacterial canker; Papaya – mosaic.

 (d) Spices: Ginger - rhizome rot; Pepper - quick wilt; Cardamom - marble mosaic disease.

 (e) Oil seeds: Coconut - grey leaf spot, bud rot disease.

 (f) Rubber yielding: Hevea braziliensis - abnormal leaf fall, powdery mildew.

 (g) Sugar yielding: Sugarcane - red rot; root knot nematode.

 (h) Cash crops: Arecanut - nut fall disease.

 (i) Beverages: Tea - blister blight; Coffee - rust.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Chapman V J (1962).  The Algae. Macmillan & Co. Ltd.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1971).  Cryptogamic Botany (Vol. 1): Algae and Fungi. Tata McGraw Hill Edition.

3. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

4. Jim Deacon (2006).  Fungal Biology (IV Edn). Blackwell Publishing.

5. L N Nair (2010).  Methods of microbial and plant biotechnology. New Central Book agency (P) Ltd.

6. Kanika Sharma. Manual of microbiology: Tools and techniques.

7. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. F E Fritsch (Vol. I, II) (1977).  The structure and reproduction of Algae. Cambridge University Press.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1951). Manual of Phycology

3. Harnold C Bold, Michael J Wynne (1978). Introduction to Algae: Structure and reproduction, Prentice Hall.

4. Kanika Sharma. Manual of microbiology: Tools and techniques.

5. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

Evaluation Pattern

The evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA-1 (10%), CIA-2 (Mid-Semester Examination) (25%), CIA-3 (10%), attendance (5%) and End-Semester Examination (50%).

MBOT151 - PRACTICAL IN PHYCOLOGY, MYCOLOGY AND CROP PATHOLOGY AND GENETICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

In this course we survey the biological diversity of modern algae and fungi and the methodology of their identification, with an eye toward understanding why studying to identify plant diversity is important in our modern society. We consider first the traditional classification of algae and fungi, and how this system has been revolutionized by phylogenetic analyses of genetic and now genomic data. We then turn to study the evolutionary processes that generate biodiversity and the ecological processes that shape this diversity.

Learning Outcome

After completing the course students will develop a timeline of the main events in the history of photosynthetic organisms, an overview of their diversity, and a conceptual understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this diversity

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:52
Phycology
 

1. Critical study of diagnostic features and identification of the following genera based on morphological, anatomical and reproductive parts;

(a) Cyanophyceae - Gleocapsa, Gleotrichia, Spirulina, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Anabaena, Nostoc, Rivularia, Scytonema.

(b) Chlorophyceae - Chlamydomonas, Gonium, Eudorina, Pandorina, Volvox, Ecballocystis, Tetraspora, Ulothrix, Microspora, Ulva, Shizomeris, Cladophora, Pithophora. Coleochaete, Chaetophora, Drapernaldia, Drapernaldiopsis, Trentepohlia, Fritschiella, Cephaleuros, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, Zygnema, Mougeotia, Sirogonium. Desmedium, Bryopsis, Acetabularia, Codium, Caulerpa, Halimeda, Neomeris, Chara, Nitella.

      (c) Xanthophyceae – Vaucheria.

      (d) Bacillariophyceae - Biddulphia, Pinnularia.

(e) Phaeophyceae - Ectocarpus, Colpomenia, Hydroclathrus, Dictyota, Padina, Sargassum, Turbinaria.

(f) Rhodophyceac - Brtrachospermum, Gelidium, Amphiroa, Gracilaria, Polysiphonia.

2. Students are to collect and identify algae from different habitat or visit an Algal research station.

3. Prepare and submit a report of the field work/research station visit.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:36
Mycology
 

1. Critical study of the following types by preparing suitable micropreparations; Stemonitis, Physarum, Saprolegnia, Phytophthora, Albugo, Mucor, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pilobolous, Saccharomyces, Xylaria, Peziza, Phyllochora, Puccinia, Termitomyces, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Polyporus, Lycoperdon, Dictyophora, Geastrum, Cyathus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotia, Graphis, Parmelia, Cladonia, Usnea.

2. Isolation of fungi from soil and water by culture plate technique.

3. Estimation of mycorrhizal colonization in root.

4. Collection and identification of common field mushrooms (5 types).

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:16
Crop Pathology
 

1. Make suitable micropreparations and identify the diseases mentioned with due emphasis on symptoms and causative organisms.

2.      2. Isolation of pathogens from diseased tissues (leaf, stem and fruit) by serial dilution method.

3.      3. Collection and preservation of specimens from infected plants. Submit 5 herbarium sheets/live

4.      specimens along with a report.

5.      4. Tests for seed pathology – seed purity test.

5. Calculation of Spore load on seeds using Haemocytometer.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:16
Genetics
 

      Genetic Problems in Recombination and Linkage

      Genetic problems in quantitative genetics

      Genetic problems in population genetics

•    Genetic problems in pedigree analysis

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Chapman V J (1962).  The Algae. Macmillan & Co. Ltd.

2. Gilbert M Smith (1971).  Cryptogamic Botany (Vol. 1): Algae and Fungi. Tata McGraw Hill Edition.

3. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. H C Dube (1983).  An introduction to fungi. Vikas Publ. New Delhi.

2. C J Alexopoulos, M Blackwell, C W Mims.  Introductory Mycology (IV Edn).

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

 

MLIF136 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:30
No of Lecture Hours/Week:2
Max Marks:50
Credits:2

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

1.      To understand the theoretical basis of conducting research

2.      To design a research

3.      Understanding the importance of the research paper

4.      To impart knowledge regarding the ethics in research

Learning Outcome

By the end of this course, students will be able to

·         find gaps in the existing research of their interest and conduct the research accordingly

·         to write a research proposal.

·         publish research and review articles in the journal with impact factor.

·         write a project report as well as research paper.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Concepts of Research and Research Formulation
 

Need for research, stages of research; Basic concepts of research -Meaning, Objectives, Motivation and Approaches. Types of Research (Descriptive/Analytical, Applied/ Fundamental, Quantitative/Qualitative, Conceptual/ Empirical); Research formulation -Observation and Facts, Prediction and explanation, Induction, Deduction; Defining and formulating the research problem, Selecting the problem and necessity of defining the problem; Literature review -Importance of literature reviewing in defining a problem, Critical literature review, Identifying gap areas from literature review; Hypothesis -Null and alternate hypothesis and testing of hypothesis -Theory, Principle, Law and Canon.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:7
Research Designs
 

Research Design -Basic principles, Meaning, Need and features of good design, Important concepts; Types of research designs; Development of a research plan -Exploration, Description, Diagnosis, Experimentation, determining experimental and sample designs; Data collection techniques, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:4
Scientific Documentation and Communication
 

Workbook maintenance, Project proposal writing, Research report writing (Thesis and dissertations, Research articles, Oral communications); Presentation techniques - Assignment, Seminar, Debate, Workshop, Colloquium, Conference.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:9
Information Science, Extension and Ethics
 

Sources of Information -Primary and secondary sources; Library - books, Journals: Indexing journals, abstracting journals, research journals, review journals, e-journals. Impact factor of journals, NCBI-Pub Med.; periodicals, reference sources, abstracting and indexing sources, Reviews, Treatise, Monographs, Patents. Internet -Search engines and software, Online libraries, e-Books, e-Encyclopedia, TED Talk, Institutional Websites; Intellectual Property Rights - Copy right, Designs, Patents, Trademarks, plagiarism, Geographical indications; Safety and precaution - ISO standards for safety, Lab protocols, Lab animal use, care and welfare, animal houses, radiation hazards; Extension: Lab to Field, Extension communication, Extension tools; Bioethics: Laws in India, Working with man and animals, Consent, Animal Ethical Committees and Constitution.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.  Thomas, C.G., Research Methodology and Scientific Writing. Anne Books Pvt. Ltd. Bengaluru. 2017.

      2.      Dawson, C. Practical research methods. UBS Publishers, New Delhi. 2002.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.      Stapleton, P., Yondeowei, A., Mukanyange, J., Houten, H.  Scientific writing for agricultural research scientists – a training reference manual. West Africa Rice Development Association, Hong Kong, 1995.

2.      Ruzin, S.E. Plant micro technique and microscopy. Oxford University Press, New York, U.S.A., 1999.


 

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be based on 10% CIA 1, 25% CIA 2, 10% CIA 3 and 5% Attendance

MBOT231 - CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Students examine the basic properties of cells and cell organelles, in addition to the properties of differentiated cell systems and tissues. The course aims to equip students with a basic knowledge of the structural and functional properties of cells. From this fundamental perspective, students are introduced to important scientific literature on the subject of cell biology, and instructed on how to critically examine data and interpretations presented by researchers.

Learning Outcome

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Describe the general principles of gene organization and expression in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 2. Interpret the outcome of experiments that involve the use of recombinant DNA technology and other common gene analysis techniques. 3. Discuss the various macromolecular components of cells and their functions. 4. Describe the structure and function of biological membranes including the roles of gradients in energy transduction. 5. Explain various levels of gene regulation and protein function including signal transduction and cell cycle control. 7. Relate properties of cancerous cells to mutational changes in gene function.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:4
Intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells
 

Major intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells (brief study only), Detailed structure of mitochondria, chloroplast, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes with reference to their functional interrelationship. Genetic systems in mitochondria and chloroplast, endosymbiont hypothesis on the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplast. Structural organization of cell membranes: Chemical composition; structure and function of membrane carbohydrates, membrane proteins and membrane lipids . Membrane functions .

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:5
Cell communication and Cell signaling
 

(a) Cell communication: general principles. Signaling molecules and their receptors external and internal signals that modify metabolism, growth, and development of plants .

(b) Receptors: Cell surface receptors – ion-channel linked receptors, G-protein coupled receptors, and Tyrosine-kinase linked receptors (RTK), Steroid hormone receptors.

(c) Signal transduction pathways, Second messengers, Regulation of signaling pathways. Bacterial and plant two-component signaling systems.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:5
Life cycle of the cell
 

(a) Cell growth and division. Phases of cell cycle, cell cycle control system; extracellular and intracellular signals. Cell cycle checkpoints – DNA damage checkpoint, centrosome duplication checkpoint, spindle assembly checkpoint. Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent kinases.  Regulation of plant cell cycle.

(b) Cell division – mitosis and meiosis (brief study only). Significance of meiosis in generating genetic variation.

(c) Programmed cell death – molecular mechanism and control.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:3
Cytoskeleton
 

Functions of cytoskeleton; Structure, assembly, disassembly and regulation of filaments involved – actin filaments (microfilaments), microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Molecular motors – kinesins, dyneins, myosins.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:5
Genetic material and its molecular structure
 

(a) Identification of DNA as genetic material: Transformation experiment, Hershey Chase experiment. RNA as the genetic material in some viruses.

(b) Important features of Watson and Crick model of DNA structure, Chargaff’s rules, preferred

tautomeric forms of bases.

(c) Alternative conformations of DNA – type(s) of right handed and left handed helices, DNA triplex and quadruplex. circular and linear DNA, single-stranded DNA.

(d) Structure and function of different types of RNA - mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, SnRNA, and Micro RNA. RNA tertiary structures. Ribozymes – Hammerhead ribozyme.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:5
Genome and chromosome organization in eucaryotes
 

(a) c-value paradox, DNA renaturation kinetics, Tm, Cot curve. Unique and Repetitive DNA –mini- and microsatellites.

(b) Structure of chromatin and chromosomes - histones and nonhistone proteins, nucleosomal organization of chromatin, higher levels of chromatin structure. Heterochromatin and Euchromatin, formation of heterochromatin. Chromosomal packing and structure of metaphase chromosome. Molecular structure of the Centromere and Telomere.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:8
DNA replication, repair and recombination
 

(a) DNA replication: Unit of replication, enzymes and proteins involved in replication (in both procaryotes and eucaryotes). Structure of the replication origin (in both procaryotes and eucaryotes), priming (in both procaryotes and eucaryotes), replication fork, fidelity of replication. Process of replication – initiation, elongation and termination. Replication in the telomere - telomerase.

(b) DNA repair mechanisms: Direct repair, excision repair – base excision repair and nucleotide

excision repair (NER), eucaryotic excision repair – GG-NER, TC-NER. Mismatch repair, Recombination repair – homologous recombination repair, nonhomologous end joining, SOS response – Transletion DNA polymerase.

(c) Recombination: Homologous and nonhomologous recombination, molecular mechanism of

homologous recombination. Site-specific recombination, transposition–types of transposons.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:15
Gene expression
 

(a) Gene: Concept of gene; structural and genetic definitions – complementation test.

(b) Transcription in procaryotes: Initiation – promoter structure, structure of RNA polymerase, structure and role of sigma factors. Elongation – elongation complex, process of RNA synthesis. Termination – rho-dependent and rho-independent termination.

(c) Transcription in eucaryotes: Types, structure and roles of RNA polymerases. Promoters – important features of class I, II, & III promoters. Enhancers and silencers. General transcription factors and formation of pre-initiation complex. Elongation factors, structure and function of transcription factors.

(d) Post-transcriptional events: Split genes, splicing signals, splicing mechanisms of group I, II, III, and tRNA introns. Alternative splicing, exon shuffling, cis and trans splicing, Structure, formation and functions of 5’ cap and 3’ tail of mRNA, RNA editing, mRNA export.

(e) Translation: Important features of mRNA – ORF, RBS (10, 16). Fine structure, composition and assembly of procaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes. tRNA charging, initiator tRNA.

(f) Stages in translation: Initiation – formation of initiation complex in procaryotes and eucaryotes, initiation factors in procaryotes and eucaryotes, Kozak sequence.

Elongation – process of polypeptide synthesis, active centers in ribosome - 3-site model, peptidyl transferase, elongation factors. Termination – process of termination, release factors, ribosome recycling.

(g) Genetic code: Cracking the genetic code – simulation synthetic polynucleotides and mixed copolymers, synthetic triplets. Important features of the genetic code, proof for the triplet code (10, 27), Exceptions to the standard code.

(h) Protein sorting and translocation: Cotranslational and posttranslational – signal sequences, SRP, translocon. Membrane insertion of proteins. Post-translational modification of proteins. Protein folding – self assembly, role of chaperones in protein assembly.

Unit-9
Teaching Hours:10
Control of gene expression
 

(a) Viral system: Genetic control of lytic and lysogenic growth in λ phage, lytic cascade

(b) Procaryotic system: Transcription switches, transcription regulators. Regulation of transcription initiation; Regulatory proteins - activators and repressors. Structure of Lac operator, CAP and repressor control of lac genes. Regulation after transcription initiation – regulation of amino acid biosynthetic operons- attenuation of trp operon, riboswitches.

(c) Eucaryotic system: Changes in chromatin and DNA structure – chromatin compaction, transcriptional activators and repressors involved in chromatin remodellin, gene amplification, gene rearrangement, alternate splicing, gene silencing by heterochromatization, and DNA methylation. Effect of regulatory transcription factors on transcription. Post-transcriptional control – mRNA stability, RNA interference, micro RNA. Role of small RNA in heterochromatization and gene silencing.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Wayne M Becker, Lewis J Kleinsmith, Jeff Hardin (2007). The world of the cell (VI Edn). Pearson.

2. Geoffrey M Cooper, Robert E Hausman (2009). The Cell: A molecular approach (V Edn). Sinaeur.

3. Gerald Karp (2008). Cell and Molecular biology: Concepts and experiments (V Edn). John Wiley &

Sons.

4. Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, Lawrence Zipursky, Paul Matsudaira, David Baltimore, James Darnell (2000). Molecular cell biology (IV Edn). W H Freeman & Company.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

5. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter (2002). Molecular biology of the cell (IV Edn). Garland Science, Taylor and Francis group.

6. Robert J Brooker (2009). Genetics: analysis and principles (III Edn). McGraw Hill.

7. Jocelyn E Krebs, Elliott S Goldstein, Stephen T Kilpatrick (2011). Lewin’s Genes X. Jones and

Bartlett Publishers.

8. Bob B Buchanan, Wilhelm Gruissem, Russel L Jones (2000). Biochemistry and Molecular biology of plants. I K International Pvt. Ltd.

9. Daniel L Hartl, Elizabeth W Jones (2012). Genetics: Analysis of genes and genomes (VII Edn). Jones and Bartlett publishers.

10. James D Watson, Tania A Baker, Stephen P Bell, Alexander Gann, Michael Levine, Richard Losick (2009). Molecular biology of the gene (V Edn). Pearson.

11. William S Klug, Michael R Cummings (2004). Concepts of Genetics (VII Edn). Pearson.

12. Daniel J Fairbanks, W Ralph Anderson (1999). Genetics: The continuity of life. Brooks/Cole publishing company.

13. Robert F Weaver (2002). Molecular biology (II Edn). McGraw Hill.

14. Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Karen Hopkin, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter (2010). Essential Cell Biology. Garland Science.

15. Leland H Hartwell, Leroy Hood, Michael L Goldberg, Ann E Reynolds, Lee M Silver, Ruth C Veres (2004). Genetics from genes to genomes (II Edn). McGraw Hill.

16. Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, Chris A. Kaiser, Monty Krieger, Matthew P. Scott, Anthony Bretscher, Hidde Ploegh, Paul Matsudaira (2007). Molecular cell biology (VI Edn). W H Freeman & Company.

17. James D. Watson, Amy A. Caudy, Richard M. Myers, Jan A. Witkowski (2007). Recombinant DNA (III Edn). W H Freeman.

18. William H Elliott, Daphne C Elliott (2001). Biochemistry and molecular biology (II Edn). Oxford.

19. Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer, Gregory J Gatto Jr. (2007). Biochemistry. W H Freeman & company.

20. David P Clark (2010). Molecular biology. Elsevier.

21. David R Hyde (2010). Genetics and molecular biology. Tata McGraw Hill.

22. D Peter Snustad, Michael J Simmons (2010). Principles of genetics (V Edn). John Wiley and Sons.

23. David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer with David A Crotty (2003). DNA Science: A first course (II Edn). L K Inter.

24. Benjamin A Pierce (2008). Genetics: A conceptual approach (IV Edn). W H Freeman and Company.

25. Anthony J F Griffiths, Susan R Wesler, Sean B Carroll, John Doebley (2012). Introduction to genetic analysis. W H Freeman & Company.

26. T A Brown (2002). Genomes (II Edn). Bios.

27. Robert H Tamarin (2002). Principles of genetics. McGraw Hill.

28. David E Sadava (2009). Cell biology: Organelle structure and function. CBS.

29. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter (2010). Essential Cell Biology (III Edn.). Garland Science.

30. Pranav Kumar, Usha Mina (2011). Biotechnology: A problem approach. Pathfinder Academy.

31. Burton E Tropp (2012). Molecular biology: Genes to Proteins (IV Edn). Jones and Bartlett Learning.

32. Lynne Cassimeris, Viswanath R Lingappa, George Plopper (Eds) (2011). Lewin’s Cells (II Edn). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Evaluation Pattern

The evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA-1 (10%), CIA-2 (Mid-Semester Examination) (25%), CIA-3 (10%), attendance (5%) and End-Semester Examination (50%).

MBOT232 - ARCHEGONIATE (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 
  1. The student will be able to appreciate the uniqueness of different groups and the way they are classified. 
  2. To get a comparative knowledge of plants and their life cycle.
  3. To understand the interrelationships between plants.
  4. To enable the student to identify the different plant groups by morphological and anatomical studies.

To get a comparative account of   plants in its life cycle, morphology, anatomy, and reproduction with an evolutionary link

Learning Outcome

Thorough knowledge of the basics of a different group of organisms like bryophyte, pteridophytes and gymnosperms is imparted. The economic importance of these forms will be well understood with experiments conducted in the laboratory and the field visits.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:2
Bryology-General introduction
 

Introduction to Bryophytes, their fossil history and evolution. Concept of algal and pteridophytic origin of Bryophytes. General characters of Bryophytes. History of classification of Bryophytes.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:4
Ecology and Economic importance of bryophytes
 

(a) Bryophyte habitats. Water relations - absorption and conduction, xerophytic adaptations, drought tolerance, dessication and rehydration, ectohydric, endohydric and myxohydric Bryophytes.

(b) Ecological significance of Bryophytes - role as pollution indicators.

(c) Economic importance of Bryophytes.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Thallus structure
 

Comparative structural organization of gametophytes and sporophytes in an evolutionary perspective. Asexual and sexual reproductive structures, spore dispersal mechanisms and germination of the following groups with reference to the types mentioned in the practical (development of sex organs not necessary).

(a) Hepaticopsida (Sphaerocarpales, Marchantiales, Jungermanniales and Calobryales).

(b) Anthocerotopsida (Anthocerotales).

(c) Bryopsida (Sphagnales, Polytrichales and Bryales).

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:3
Pteridophytes - Unit 4: General introduction and classification
 

Introduction, origin, general characteristics and an outline of the classification of Pteridophytes.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:18
Structure of the plant body
 

a) Distribution, habitat, range, external and internal morphology of sporophytes, spores, mechanism of spore dispersal, gametophytic generation, sexuality, embryogeny of the following classes of Pteridophytes with reference to the genera mentioned (development of sex organs is not necessary):

(I) Psilopsida (a) Rhyniales; Rhynia

(II) Psilotopsida (a) Psilotales; Psilotum

(III) Lycopsida (a) Protolepidodendrales; Protolepidodendron (b) Lycopodiales; Lycopodium, (c) Isoetales; Isoetes (d) Selaginellales; Selaginella.

(IV) Sphenopsida (a) Hyeniales (b) Sphenophyllales; Sphenophyllum (c) Calamitales; Calamites (d) Equisetales; Equisetum.

(V) Pteropsida (i) Primofilices (a) Cladoxylales; Cladoxylon (b) Coenopteridales.

(ii) Eusporangiatae (a) Marattiales; Angiopteris (b) Ophioglossales; Ophioglossum.

(iii) Osmundales; Osmunda.

(iv) Leptosporangiatae (a) Marsileales; Marsilea (b) Salviniales; Salvinia, Azolla (c) Filicales; Pteris, Lygodium, Acrostichum, Gleichenia, Adiantum.

b) Comparative study of Pteridophytes

Stelar organization, soral and sporangial characters, gametophytes and sporophytes of Pteridophytes in an evolutionary perspective.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:1
Ecology and Economic importance
 

Ecological and economic significance of Pteridophytes.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:2
Gymnosperms:Introduction
 

Origin, general characteristics, distribution and classification of Gymnosperms (K R Sporne and C J Chamberlain). Distribution of living gymnosperms in India.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:18
Vegetative and reproductive structures of Gymnosperms
 

) Detailed study of the vegetative morphology, internal structure, reproductive structures, and evolution of the orders and families (with reference to the genera mentioned).

(a) Class Progymnospermopsida: Aneurophyton

(b) Class Cycadopsida: Lyginopteris, Glossopteris, Medullosa, Caytonia. Bennettites, Williamsoniella, Nilsonia, Cycas, Zamia, Pentoxylon.

(c) Class Coniferopsida: General account of families under Coniferales, range of form and structure of stem, leaves; range of form, structure and evolution of female cones in coniferales such as Pinus, Cupressus, Podocarpus, Agathis, Araucaria, Taxus and Ginkgo.

(d) Class Gnetopsida: Gnetum.

ii) Gametophyte development and economic importance of Gymnosperms

General account on the male and female gametophyte development in Gymnosperms (Cycas). Economic significance of Gymnosperms.

Text Books And Reference Books:

Gifford E M, A S Foster (1989). Morphology and evolution of Vascular plants (III Edn). W H Freeman & Co.

Khullar S P (2000). An illustrated fern flora of West Himalayas (Vol I, II). International Book Distributors 

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Gif    Ford E M, A S Foster (1989). Morphology and evolution of Vascular plants (III Edn). W H Freeman & Co.

Khullar S P (2000). An illustrated fern flora of West Himalayas (Vol I, II). International Book Distributors 

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be based on 10% CIA 1, 25% CIA 2, 10% CIA 3, 5% Attendence and 50% End Sememster Examination

MBOT251 - PRACTICAL IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ARCHEGONIATE (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Practical course of Cell and molecular biology deals with the isolation of protein from animal and plant source using different methods and also the estimation of DNA, RNA and protein.  The practical of Archegoniate deals with understanding and appreciate the diversity existing among the plant kingdom 

Learning Outcome

By the end of the course the students will be familiar with techniques in plant cell biology and different molecular biological techniques like electrophoresis, chromatography, spectrophotometry and also the students now know how to estimate the amount of macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. This course makes the foundation step for their learning the next higher methods in Genetic Engineering.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:20
Molecular Biology
 

        DNA and RNA estimation by colorimetry and spectrophotometry

        Screening of auxotrophic mutants

        Bacteriophage assay

              UV and chemical mutagenesis

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:20
Cell Biology
 

    Study of Plasmolysis- deplasmolysis using micrometry

      Isolation and enumeration of mitochondria from yeast cells

      Isolation and enumeration of chloroplast from spinach

      Estimation of chlorophyll in isolated chloroplasts

      Comparative study of chloroplast number and chlorophyll content in different plant families

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:80
Archegoniate
 

Bryophytes (20 hrs)

1. Detailed study of the structure of gametophytes and sporophytes of the following genera of bryophytes by suitable micropreparation: Riccia, Cyathodium, Marchantia, Lunularia, Reboulia, Pallavicinia, Fossombronia, Porella, Anthoceros, Notothylas, Sphagnum, Pogonatum.

2. Students are expected to submit a report of field trip to bryophyte’s natural habitats to family

Pteridophytes (40 hrs)

1. Study of morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs using clear whole mounts/sections of the following genera: Psilotum, Lycopodium, Isoetes, Selaginella, Equisetum, Angiopteris, Ophioglossum, Osmunda, Marsilea, Salvinia, Azolla, Lygodium, Acrostichum, Gleichenia, Pteris, Adiantum, Polypodium and Asplenium.

2. Study of fossil Pteridophytes with the help of specimens and permanent slides.

3. Field trips to familiarize with the diversity of Pteridophytes in natural habitats.

Gymnosperms (20 hrs)

1. Study of the morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive parts of Cycas, Zamia, Pinus, Cupressus, Agathis, Araucaria and Gnetum.

2. Study of fossil gymnosperms through specimens and permanent slides.

3. Conduct field trips to familiarize various gymnosperms in nature and field identification of Indian gymnosperms and submit a report.

Text Books And Reference Books:

Gardner E J, Simmons M J, Snustad D P (1991). Principles of Genetics (III Edn). John Wiley and Sons Inc.

        Snustad D P, Simmons M J (2000). Principles of Genetics (III Edn). John Wiley and Sons.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

S Sadasivam, A. Manickam. Biochemical Methods. 2Ed, Delhi: New Age International Publishers Ltd, 1996.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

MLIF232 - GENETIC ENGINEERING (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The objective of the course is to impart in depth knowledge about the concepts in genetic engineering - enzymes, biology of cloning vehicles, vector and host considerations, gene libraries, analysis and expression of the cloned gene in host cell and understand ethical issues and biosafety regulations. It gives emphasis to practical applications of genetic engineering tools in academic and industrial research. At the end of the course the student will have detailed knowledge of recombinant DNA technology essential for taking up projects in the field of Biotechnology.

Learning Outcome

By the end of this course, the students will have in-depth knowledge about different techniques used in rDNA technology, different methods of generating recombinant DNA, different types of vectors, host, methods and means of making of rDNA molecules and analysing them, fingerprinting and more over the students will have the idea about the application of genetic engineering and the biosafety and ethics related to such experiments.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:20
Tools to Make rDNA
 

Introduction to rDNA technology, DNA modifying enzymes and its functions (DNA Polymerases, Klenow fragment, Ligase, S1 Nuclease, Mung Bean nuclease, Alkaline Phosphatase, Terminal Transferase, Polynucleotide kinases, Polynucleotide phosphorylase, Calf intestinal alkaline Phosphatases, Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatases, RNase A, RNase H, DNase 1, DNase II, Exonuclease III, Reverse Transcriptase) Restriction modification system, Restriction enzymes – function, classification (Based on recognition and restriction sequence:-type I, II and III; based on buffer salt concentration: - low, medium and high; based on pattern of restriction:-sticky (5’ and 3’) and blunt end cutters, Plasmids (Types, copy number, properties, origin of replication and incompatibility group, plasmid amplification), bacteriophages eg. λ (Life cycle, genome organization, feasibility as a cloning vehicle), Types of Cloning Vectors (structure and general features of General Purpose cloning vectors, Expression vectors, Promotor probe Vectors, shuttle vectors), Examples of cloning vectors (pBR322, pUC series of vectors, λ insertional and replacement vectors), derivatives of phages and plasmids (cosmids, phagemids, phasmids) cloning vectors for large DNA fragments and genomic DNA library YACs, PACs and BACs. Host and vector consideration, Host Organisms and its genotypes- JM 109 & DH5α, Selectable and scorable markers, reporter genes, prokaryotic and eukaryotic markers (lacZ, CAT, Gus, GFP,cre-loxP system, sac B system, npt II gene, luciferase gene, dhfr gene, herbicide resistance gene)

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:8
Making of rDNA Molecule
 

General strategies for isolation of genomic and plasmid DNA, RNA, strategies for isolation of gene of interest (restriction digestion, PCR), Creation of r-DNA (Restriction Digestion, modification of vector and insert, linker, adaptors, homopolymer tailing, ligation), PCR Cloning, Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries (Selection of vectors and Complexity of library), Methods of gene transfer- Calcium chloride mediated, Electroporation, Biolistic gun, lipofection and microinjection. In vitro packaging.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Screening and analysis of rDNA molecules
 

Blotting techniques- Southern, Northern and Western, Differential display. Gene sequencing- Chemical, enzymatic, pyrosequencing, next generation sequencing, Immunological screening and colony and plaque hybridization, dot blot hybridization, chromosome walking, FISH, RACE, Chromosome walking.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Expression & control of Genes
 

Protein production by foreign DNA in the host bacteria E. coli, Factors influencing expression, properties of expression vector, examples of expression vectors, tags for purification of expressed proteins, FLAG expression vector system, cloning in pET vectors, eukaryotic vectors- Baculovirus based vectors, mammalian viral vectors., expression Host, Modification and folding of protein in-vitro, genome editing, CRISPR/Cas9 and Targeted Genome Editing, 

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Applications of r-DNA Technology
 

RNA interference and gene silencing, Transgenic organisms, Advantages and disadvantages of Genetically Modified Organisms, Transgenic animal- Gene therapy. The Use of Transgenic animals in areas other than recombinant protein production. Transgenic plants- applications, special emphasis to pharmaceutical products. Engineered Nutritional Changes- golden rice, Engineered herbicide resistance, Engineered pesticide resistance. Production of recombinant proteins (Insulin), recombinant vaccines (Hepatitis B), Hormones (Human growth hormone). Genome projects and its Applications. International treaties/agreements in biosafety, public perception on rDNA technology, IPR related to rDNA technology. 

Text Books And Reference Books:

M. L. Srivastava, Bioanalytical Techniques, New Delhi: Narosa Publications, 2011.

E. L. Winnacker, From Genes to Clones Introduction to Gene Technology,New Delhi, India: Panima Publishing Corporation, 2003.

 

T. A. Brown, Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis-An Introduction. 5th ed. UK: Wiley Blackwell Publishers. 2006.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Alkami Quick Guide for PCR A laboratory reference for the Polymerase Chain Reaction, USA. Alkami Biosystems Inc., 1999.

B. R. Glick. J. J. Pasternak and C. L. Patten. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and application of recombinant DNA. 4th ed. Washington D. C: American Society for Microbiology Press, 2010.

 S. B. Primrose, R. M. Twyman and R. W. Old, Principles of Gene Manipulation, 6th ed. USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001

K. Wilson and J. Walker, Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 7th ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

 

 J.  W.  Dale, M. von Schantz and N. Plant, From Genes to Genomes: Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2012.

Evaluation Pattern

Evaluation will be done on the basis of CIA1 (10%), CIA2 [Mid Semester Examination] (25%), CIA3 (10%), Attendance (5%) and End Semester Examination (50%).

CIA1: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

CIA2: MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION for 50 marks

CIA3: Assignment/test/poster preparation/review writing etc. for 20 marks

Attendance in class: 10 marks

END SEMSTER EXAMINATION: Consist of 2 sections. Section A consist of 10 questions carrying 5 marks each out of which students need to attempt 8 questions (8 X 5marks = 40 marks). Section B consists of 7 questions, carrying 12 marks each, out of which students need to attempt 5 questions (5 X 12 marks = 60 marks).

MLIF251 - PRACTICAL IN GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND BIOINFORMATICS (2019 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to recombinant DNA technology. It helps the students to understand how the principles of molecular biology have been used to develop techniques in recombinant DNA technology. The objective of the course is to familiarize the student with the basic concepts in genetic engineering - enzymes, cloning vehicles, gene libraries, analysis and expression of the cloned gene in host cell and understand ethical issues and biosafety regulations. It gives emphasis to practical applications of genetic engineering tools in the field of health care. At the end of the course the student will have enough background of recombinant DNA technology essential for taking up projects in the field of Biotechnology.

Learning Outcome

Modern Biotechnology relies on rDNA technology. This paper will equip the student with all the basic rDNA methods and protocols. By the end of the course, the students will be
familiar with and gain hands on training on basic rDNA methodologies. Moreover, the students will be able to find a job in R&D laboratories/industries where rDNA works are being done.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:60
Genetic Engineering
 

1

Isolation and purification of DNA from plant, animal, bacterial and fungal samples.

2

Isolation of plasmid DNA from the bacteria.

3

Isolation of megaplasmid from the environmental isolates.

4

Isolation of RNA from plant, animal and bacterial samples and separation on denaturing gel.

5

Primer design and PCR amplification of DNA.

6

Gel-band purification for DNA.

7

RFLP and RAPD, ISSR/SSR analysis of DNA

8

Cloning and expression of gene in E. coli.

9

Southern blotting and hybridization.

10

Agarose gel electrophoresis.

11

Study of star activity of restriction Enzyme.

12

Study of complete and partial digestion of DNA.

13

Effect of different parameters on Restriction digestion.

Site Directed Mutagenesis

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unit-2
Teaching Hours:30
Bioanalytical Techniques
 

14

Analysis of Amino Acids and Sugars (TLC and Colorimetric)

15

Extraction of phytochemicals using Soxhlet apparatus

16

Column Chromatography

17

Affinity chromatography.

18

HPLC- Principle and sample preparation, visit to Research Institute for analysis

19

Zymogram

20

Microwave assisted extraction

21

Density Gradient Centrifugation

22

Dialysis and purification of proteins

23

Isoelectric focusing

24

Colorimetry and spectrophotometry

   
Unit-3
Teaching Hours:30
Bioinformatics
 

Docking studies of ligands

Construction of dendogram

Pubmed

BLASTN, BLASTP and BLASTX

FASTA

KEGG

EXPASY

RasMol

Text Books And Reference Books:

S Sadasivam, A. Manickam. Biochemical Methods. 2Ed, Delhi: New Age International Publishers Ltd, 1996.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

S. K. Sawhney. R. Singh. Introductory Practical Biochemistry. New Delhi. Narosa Publications. 2014.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

End Semester Examination

MAXIMUM MARKS: 100                                                               DURATION: 6 HOURS 

 

Sl No.

Question

Marks

1

Isolation and purification of gDNA/Plasmid and analyze on agarose gel (Principle 5 marks, Procedure 5 marks, Results 20 marks)

30

2

SDS PAGE/ Column Chromatography (Principle 5 marks, Procedure 5 marks, Results 20 marks)

30

3

Construct a phylogenetic tree using the following nucleotide sequences from different species.                                                                                                             

10

4

Protein/Nucleotide Sequence Alignment using BLAST OR Protein structure studies by Rasmol  OR Gene sequence search using online tools.                                                                                               

5

5

Spotters 5 X 4 Marks

15

6

Viva

10

   
     
     
     
     

 

MBOT331 - ARCHEGONIATAE (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 
  1. The student will be able to appreciate the uniqueness of different groups and the way they are classified. 
  2. To get a comparative knowledge of plants and their life cycle.
  3. To understand the interrelationships between plants.
  4. To enable the student to identify the different plant groups by morphological and anatomical studies.

To get a comparative account of   plants in its life cycle, morphology, anatomy and reproduction with an evolutionary link

Learning Outcome

A thorough knowledge of the basics of different group of organisms like bryophyte, peridophyte and gymnosperms is imparted. The economic importance of these forms will be well understood with experiments conducted in the laboratory and the field visits.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:2
Bryology - Unit 1: General introduction
 

Introduction to Bryophytes, their fossil history and evolution. Concept of algal and pteridophytic origin of Bryophytes. General characters of Bryophytes. History of classification of Bryophytes.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:4
Ecology and Economic importance of bryophytes
 

(a) Bryophyte habitats. Water relations - absorption and conduction, xerophytic adaptations, drought tolerance, dessication and rehydration, ectohydric, endohydric and myxohydric Bryophytes.

(b) Ecological significance of Bryophytes - role as pollution indicators.

(c) Economic importance of Bryophytes.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Thallus structure
 

Comparative structural organization of gametophytes and sporophytes in an evolutionary perspective. Asexual and sexual reproductive structures, spore dispersal mechanisms and germination of the following groups with reference to the types mentioned in the practical (development of sex organs not necessary).

(a) Hepaticopsida (Sphaerocarpales, Marchantiales, Jungermanniales and Calobryales).

(b) Anthocerotopsida (Anthocerotales).

(c) Bryopsida (Sphagnales, Polytrichales and Bryales).

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:3
Pteridophytes - Unit 4: General introduction and classification
 

Introduction, origin, general characteristics and an outline of the classification of Pteridophytes.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:18
Structure of the plant body
 

a) Distribution, habitat, range, external and internal morphology of sporophytes, spores, mechanism of spore dispersal, gametophytic generation, sexuality, embryogeny of the following classes of Pteridophytes with reference to the genera mentioned (development of sex organs is not necessary):

(I) Psilopsida (a) Rhyniales; Rhynia

(II) Psilotopsida (a) Psilotales; Psilotum

(III) Lycopsida (a) Protolepidodendrales; Protolepidodendron (b) Lycopodiales; Lycopodium, (c) Isoetales; Isoetes (d) Selaginellales; Selaginella.

(IV) Sphenopsida (a) Hyeniales (b) Sphenophyllales; Sphenophyllum (c) Calamitales; Calamites (d) Equisetales; Equisetum.

(V) Pteropsida (i) Primofilices (a) Cladoxylales; Cladoxylon (b) Coenopteridales.

(ii) Eusporangiatae (a) Marattiales; Angiopteris (b) Ophioglossales; Ophioglossum.

(iii) Osmundales; Osmunda.

(iv) Leptosporangiatae (a) Marsileales; Marsilea (b) Salviniales; Salvinia, Azolla (c) Filicales; Pteris, Lygodium, Acrostichum, Gleichenia, Adiantum.

Comparative study of Pteridophytes

Stelar organization, soral and sporangial characters, gametophytes and sporophytes of Pteridophytes in an evolutionary perspective.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:1
Ecology and Economic importance
 

Ecological and economic significance of Pteridophytes.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:2
GYMNOSPERMS: Introduction
 

Origin, general characteristics, distribution and classification of Gymnosperms (K R Sporne and C J Chamberlain). Distribution of living gymnosperms in India.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:18
Vegetative and reproductive structures of Gymnosperms
 

i) Detailed study of the vegetative morphology, internal structure, reproductive structures, and evolution of the orders and families (with reference to the genera mentioned).

(a) Class Progymnospermopsida: Aneurophyton

(b) Class Cycadopsida: Lyginopteris, Glossopteris, Medullosa, Caytonia. Bennettites, Williamsoniella, Nilsonia, Cycas, Zamia, Pentoxylon.

(c) Class Coniferopsida: General account of families under Coniferales, range of form and structure of stem, leaves; range of form, structure and evolution of female cones in coniferales such as Pinus, Cupressus, Podocarpus, Agathis, Araucaria, Taxus and Ginkgo.

(d) Class Gnetopsida: Gnetum.

ii) Gametophyte development and economic importance of Gymnosperms

General account on the male and female gametophyte development in Gymnosperms (Cycas). Economic significance of Gymnosperms.

Text Books And Reference Books:

Vashishta B R, A K Sinha, A Kumar (2003). Bryophyta. S Chand & Co. Ltd.

2.      Pandey B P (1994). Bryophyta. S Chand and Co. Ltd.

3.      Goffinet B, A J Shaw (2009). Bryophytic Biology (II Edn). Cambridge University Press.

4.      Srivastava S N (1992). Bryophyta. Pradeep Publications.

5.      Agashe S N (1995). Palaeobotany. Oxford and IBH publishing House.

6.      Arnold C R (1977). Introduction to Palaeobotany. McGraw Hill Book Com.

7.      Chandra S, Srivastava M (Eds) (2003). Pteridology in the New Millennium. Khuwar Acad. Publishers.

8.      Beddome C R H (1970). Ferns of south India. Today & Tommorrows Publ.

9.      Dyer A F (1979). The experimental biology of ferns. Academic Press.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading
 

Gifford E M, A S Foster (1989). Morphology and evolution of Vascular plants (III Edn). W H Freeman & Co.

Khullar S P (2000). An illustrated fern flora of West Himalayas (Vol I, II). International Book Distributers 

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1: 10%

CIA2: 25%

CIA3: 10%

Attendance: 5%

End sem examination: 50%

MBOT332 - PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 
  • To acquaint with the aims, objectives and significance of taxonomy.
  • To identify the common species of plants growing in India and their systematic position.
  • To develop inductive and deductive reasoning ability.
  • To acquaint with the basic technique in the preparation of herbarium
  • To learn the new techniques in systematics 

Learning Outcome

Students will be learnt to classify plant species and learn to identify the plants to their systematic position through the study of angiosperm systematic. Study of the Economic importance of plants will enable the students to get a thorough idea of the usage of plants commercially. The study of Embryology gives an idea about the development of plant embryo and the relationship between different plant species and evolution. Application of the knowledge in industry is enhanced.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:3
Phylogeny of Angiosperms
 

Important phylogenetic terms and concepts: Plesiomorphic and Apomorphic characters; Homology and Analogy; Parallelism and Convergence; Monophyly, Paraphyly and Polyphyly. Phylogenetic tree - Cladogram and Phenogram.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:3
Concept and principles of assessing relationships
 

Phenetic - Numerical Taxonomy - principles and methods; Cladistic - Principles and methods. Chemotaxonomy, basic concepts of genome analysis – bar coding.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:5
Botanical nomenclature
 

History of ICBN, aims and principles, rules and recommendations: rule of priority, typification, author citation, retention, rejection and changing of names, effective and valid publication.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:2
Morphology of Angiosperms
 

Habitat and habit; Morphology of root, stem, leaf, bract and bracteoles, inflorescence, flowers, fruits and seeds.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:3
Classification
 

Major systems of angiosperm classification with special emphasis on the conceptual basis of the classifications of; (i) Linnaeus (ii) Bentham & Hooker (iii) Engler & Prantl (iv) Bessey (v) Takhtajan (vi) APG.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:6
Tools of Taxonomy
 

Functions of field study, herbarium, botanical gardens, BSI, Floras/Taxonomic literature and GIS (Geographic Information System). Construction of taxonomic keys – indented and bracketed – their utilization.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:40
Angiosperm diversity with special reference to Tropical flora
 

Study of the following families (Bentham & Hooker) in detail with special reference to their salient features, interrelationships, evolutionary trends and economic significance.

1. Ranunculaceae 2. Magnoliaceae 3. Annonaceae 4. Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) 5. Polygalaceae 6. Caryophyllaceae 7. Guttiferae (Clusiaceae) 8. Malvaceae 9. Tiliaceae 10. Geraniaceae 11. Rutaceae 12. Meliaceae 13. Vitaceae 14. Sapindaceae 15. Fabaceae 16. Caesalpiniaceae 17. Mimosaceae 18. Rosaceae 19. Combretaceae 20. Lythraceae 21. Melastomaceae 22. Myrtaceae 23. Cucurbitaceae 24. Apiaceae 25. Rubiaceae 26. Compositae (Asteraceae) 27. Plumbaginaceae 28. Sapotaceae 29. Oleaceae 30. Apocynaceae 31. Asclepiadaceae 32. Boraginaceae 33. Convolvulaceae 34. Solanaceae 35. Scrophulariaceae 36. Bignoniaceae 37. Acanthaceae 38. Verbenaceae 39. Lamiaceae 40. Nyctaginaceae 41. Polygonaceae 42. Aristolochiaceae 43. Loranthaceae 44. Euphorbiaceae 45. Orchidaceae 46. Zingiberaceae 47. Commelinaceae 48. Araceae 49. Cyperaceae 50. Poaceae.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Jain S K (1991). Dictionary of Indian Folkmedicine and Ethnobotany.

2. Paye G D (2000). Cultural Uses of Plants: A Guide to Learning about Ethnobotany. The New York Botanical Garden Press.

3. Hooker J D. The flora of British India (Vol. I – VII).

4. Gamble J S. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. (Vol. I – III).

5. Cronquist A (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. Woodland D W (1991). Contemporary Plant Systematics. Prentice Hall.

2. Sivarajan V V (1991). Introduction to Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford IBH.

3. Takhtajan A L (1997). Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia Univ. Press

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1: 10%

CIA 2: 25%

CIA 3: 10%

Attendance: 5%

End Sem Examination: 50%

MBOT333 - PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 
  • To enable the student understand the anatomical features within the system instead of merely memorizing the technical terms and the text book figures.

·                     To understand the methods of crop improvement

·                     To understand the cytological aspects of growth and development.

·                     To learn the developmental stages in the plant life 

Learning Outcome

Study of plant anatomy will make the students aware of the internal structure existing in the different groups of plants and Embryology helps the students to understand the developmental stages in plants. Students will be learnt to appreciate the uniqueness in the life history of plants and the different techniques to improve the productivity of crop plants.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:1
Introduction
 

Unique features of plant development; differences between animal and plant development.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:4
Seed germination and seedling growth
 

Metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins and mobilization of food reserves; tropisms; hormonal control of seedling growth; gene expression; use of mutants in understanding seedling development.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:4
Shoot development
 

Organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM); cytological and molecular analysis of SAM; control of cell division and cell to cell communication; control of tissue differentiation, especially xylem and phloem; secretory ducts and laticifers; wood development in relation to environmental factors.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:3
Leaf growth and differentiation
 

Determination; phyllotaxy; control of leaf form; differentiation of epidermis (with special reference to stomata and trichomes) and mesophyll.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:3
Root development
 

Organization of root apical meristem (RAM); cell fates and lineages; vascular tissue differentiation; lateral roots; root hairs; root-microbe interactions.

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:5
Reproduction
 

Vegetative options and sexual reproduction; flower development; genetics of floral organ differentiation; homeotic mutants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum; sex determination.

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:4
Male gametophyte
 

Structure of anthers; microsporogenesis, role of tapetum; pollen development and gene expression; male sterility; sperm dimorphism and hybrid seed production; pollen germination, pollen tube growth and guidance; pollen storage; pollen allergy; pollen embryos.

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:4
Female gametophyte
 

Ovule development; megasporogenesis; organization of the embryo sac, structure of the embryo sac cells.

Unit-9
Teaching Hours:8
Pollination, pollen-pistil interaction and fertilization
 

Floral characteristics, pollination mechanisms and vectors; breeding systems; commercial considerations; structure of the pistil; pollen-stigma interactions, sporophytic and gametophytic self-incompatibility (cytological, biochemical and molecular aspects); double fertilization; in vitro fertilization.

Unit-10
Teaching Hours:7
Seed development and fruit growth
 

Endosperm development during early, maturation and desiccation stages; embryogenesis, ultrastructure and nuclear cytology; cell lineages during late embryo development; storage proteins of endosperm and embryo; polyembryony; apomixis; embryo culture; dynamics of fruit growth; biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.

Unit-11
Teaching Hours:2
Latent life ? dormancy
 

Importance and types of dormancy; seed dormancy; overcoming seed dormancy; bud dormancy.

Unit-12
Teaching Hours:5
Senescence and programmed cell death (PCD)
 

Basic concepts, types of cell death, POD in the life cycle of plants, metabolic changes associated with senescence and its regulation; influence of hormones and environmental factors on senescence.

Unit-13
Teaching Hours:10
Plant Breeding
 

Objectives of plant breeding, important achievements and future prospects. Genetic variability and its role in plant breeding. Domestication and centers of origin of cultivated plants. Hybridization - role and methods, Inter-varietal, inter specific and inter generic crosses. Back-crossbreeding. Heterosis, Inbreeding depression. Breeding for resistance - Breeding for biotic (disease) and abiotic (drought) stresses; loss due to diseases, disease development, disease escape, disease resistance, vertical and horizontal resistances of biotic stress; methods of breeding for disease resistance. Mutation breeding- Mutagens and crop improvement. Spontaneous and induced mutations, effects of mutation. Physical and chemical mutagens; principles and working of Gamma gardens, methods of mutation breeding, mutations in oligogenic traits, mutations in polygenic traits, limitations of mutation breeding, achievements of mutation breeding. Role of mutations in Plant Breeding.

Text Books And Reference Books:

Text Books And Reference Books

 

Atwell, B.J., Kriedermann, P.E. and Jurnbull, C.G.N. (eds) 1999. Plants in Action: Adaptation in Nature, Performance in Cultivation. MacMillan Education, Sydney, Australia.

Bewley, J.D. and Black, M. 1994. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Plenum Press, New York.

Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar, S.P. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4h revised and enlarged edition). Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

Burgess, J. 1985. An Introduction to Plant Cell Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fageri, K. and Van der Pijl, L. 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Fahn, A. 1982. Plant Anatomy. (3rd edition). Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Fosket, D.E. 1994. Plant Growth and Development. A Molecular Approach. Academic Press, San Diego.

Howell, S.H. 1998. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Leins, P., Tucker, S.C. and Endress, P.K. 1988. Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Germany.

Lyndon, R.F. 1990. Plant Development. The Cellular Basis. Unnin Hyman, London.

Murphy, T.M. and Thompson, W.F. 1988. Molecular Plant Development. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Proctor, M. and Yeo, P. 1973. The Pollination of Flowers. William Collins Sons, London.

Raghavan, V. 1997. Molecular Embryology of Flowering Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Raghavan, V. 1999. Developmental Biology of Flowering Plants. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Raven, P.H., Evert, R.F. and Eichhorn, S.E. 1992. Biology of Plants Oh edition). Worth, New York.

Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1992. Plant Physiology (4h edition). Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, California.

Steeves, T.A. and Sussex, I.M. 1989. Patterns in Plant Development (26 edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sedgely, M. and Griffin, A.R. 1989. Sexual Reproduction of Tree Crops. Academic Press, London.

Waisel, Y., Eshel, A. and Kafkaki, U. (eds) 1996. Plant Roots: The Hidden Hall (2d edition). Marcel Dekker, New York.

Shivanna, K.R. and Sawhney, V.K. (eds) 1997. Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Production and Improvement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shivanna, K.R. and Rangaswamy, N.S. 1992. Pollen Biology: A Laboratory Manual. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Shivanna, K.R. and John, B.M. 1985. The Angiosperm Pollen: Structure and Function. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New York.

The Plant Cell. Special Issue on Reproductive Biology of Plants, Vol. 5(10) 1993. The American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1: 10%

CIA 2: 25%

CIA 3: 10%

Attendance: 5%

End Sem Examination: 50%

MBOT351 - PRACTICAL IN PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY, REGULATORY AFFAIRS AND ARCHEGONIATE (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To understand the principle behind various techniques in plant tissue culture, bioinformatics and understand the diversity among the different classes of plants from lower plants like Bryophytes to Gymnosperms.

Learning Outcome

Learn various techniques in Plant Biotechnology like aseptic handling of plant materials, culture of callus, protoplasts etc. Bioinformatics like docking, constructing dendrogram, tools (BLAST, FASTA) etc. and know the different variations from cryptogams to phanerogams.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:50
Plant Biotechnology
 

Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory & Nutritional components of Tissue Culture Media

Introduction to aseptic techniques & Introduction to different types of explants
Surface sterilization techniques & Callus initiation and Maintenance

Initiation of Cell suspension cultures and Growth kinetic studies using PCV/fresh and Dry weight basis

Induction of multiple shoots by using different explants

Culturing of anthers for the induction of haploids

Isolation and Culturing of protoplast

Induction of hairy roots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection using different explants and confirmation of transgene using PCR

Production of Artificial seeds using sodium alginate

Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:20
Bryophytes
 

1. Detailed study of the structure of gametophytes and sporophytes of the following genera of bryophytes by suitable micropreparation: Riccia, Cyathodium, Marchantia, Lunularia, Reboulia, Pallavicinia, Fossombronia, Porella, Anthoceros, Notothylas, Sphagnum, Pogonatum.

2. Students are expected to submit a report of field trip to bryophyte’s natural habitats to familiarize with the diversity of Bryophytes.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:30
Pteridophytes
 

1. Study of morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs using clear whole mounts/sections of the following genera: Psilotum, Lycopodium, Isoetes, Selaginella, Equisetum, Angiopteris, Ophioglossum, Osmunda, Marsilea, Salvinia, Azolla, Lygodium, Acrostichum, Gleichenia, Pteris, Adiantum, Polypodium and Asplenium.

2. Study of fossil Pteridophytes with the help of specimens and permanent slides.

3. Field trips to familiarize with the diversity of Pteridophytes in natural habitats.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:20
Gymnosperms
 

1. Study of the morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive parts of Cycas, Zamia, Pinus, Cupressus, Agathis, Araucaria and Gnetum.

2. Study of fossil gymnosperms through specimens and permanent slides.

3. Conduct field trips to familiarize various gymnosperms in nature and field identification of Indian gymnosperms and submit a report.

Text Books And Reference Books:

Hooker J D. The flora of British India (Vol. I – VII).

Gamble J S. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. (Vol. I – III).

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading
 

Paye G D (2000). Cultural Uses of Plants: A Guide to Learning about Ethnobotany. The New York Botanical Garden Press.

Evaluation Pattern

CIA Evaluation

Performance: 40 marks

Mid Semester Examination: 40 marks

Record: 20 marks

 

MBOT352 - PRACTICAL IN PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY, PLANT ANATOMY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PLANT BREEDING (2018 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:120
No of Lecture Hours/Week:8
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

To understand the principles of Taxonomy 

To identify the plants upto species 

To undertand the diversity existing among the angiosperms 

Learning Outcome

Students will be able to identify the plants using the Flora and be experts in identification and breeding process of plants. 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:84
PRINCIPLES OF ANGIOSPERM SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY