Department of COMMERCE

Syllabus for
Bachelor of Commerce (Honors)
Academic Year  (2021)

 
1 Semester - 2021 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
AEN121 ADDITIONAL ENGLISH Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 3 100
COH131 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Core Courses 4 4 100
COH132 BUSINESS LAW Core Courses 4 4 100
COH133 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Core Courses 4 4 100
COH134 BUSINESS ECONOMICS - I Core Courses 4 4 100
ENG121 ENGLISH - I Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 2 100
FRN121 FRENCH Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 3 100
HIN122 HINDI Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 3 100
KAN122 KANNADA Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 03 100
SAN122 SANSKRIT Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 3 100
TAM121 TAMIL Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course 3 3 100
2 Semester - 2021 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
AEN221 ADDITIONAL ENGLISH - 3 3 100
COH231 CORPORATE ACCOUNTING - I - 4 4 100
COH232 CORPORATE LAWS - 4 4 100
COH233 BUSINESS STATISTICS - 4 04 100
COH234 BUSINESS ECONOMICS - II - 4 4 100
ENG221 ENGLISH - II - 3 2 100
FRN221 FRENCH - 3 3 100
HIN222 HINDI - 3 3 100
KAN222 KANNADA - 3 03 100
SAN222 SANSKRIT - 3 3 100
TAM221 TAMIL - 3 3 100
3 Semester - 2020 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
COH331 CORPORATE ACCOUNTING - II Core Courses 4 4 100
COH332 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS Core Courses 4 4 100
COH333 COST ACCOUNTING Core Courses 4 04 100
COH334 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT Core Courses 4 4 100
COH335 FINANCIAL SYSTEMS AND SERVICES Core Courses 4 4 100
COH361A INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC POLICY Generic Elective 4 04 100
COH361B GRAPHIC DESIGNING Generic Elective 4 04 100
COH361C BASICS OF LAW Generic Elective 4 04 100
COH381 NGO PROJECT Skill Enhancement Course 0 2 0
4 Semester - 2020 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
COH412 ENTREPRENEURSHIP - 2 2 50
COH431 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT - 4 4 100
COH432 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT - 4 4 100
COH433 PRACTICES OF BANKING AND INSURANCE - 4 4 100
COH434 AUDITING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE - 4 04 100
COH435 BUSINESS MATHEMATICS - 4 4 100
COH461A STRESS MANAGEMENT - 4 04 100
COH461B WEB DESIGNING - 4 04 100
COH461C COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS - 4 04 100
5 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
COH531 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Core Courses 4 4 100
COH532 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING Core Courses 4 04 100
COH533 TAXATION LAWS -I Core Courses 5 4 100
COH541A RISK IN FINANCIAL SERVICES Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH541B PRINCIPLES OF INSURANCE Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH542A FINANCIAL SERVICES AND ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH542B PRACTICES OF LIFE INSURANCE AND GENERAL INSURANCE Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH543A STRATEGIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH543B REGULATIONS OF INSURANCE BUSINESS Discipline Specific Elective 4 4 100
COH581 SUMMER INTERNSHIP Skill Enhancement Course 0 2 50
6 Semester - 2019 - Batch
Course Code
Course
Type
Hours Per
Week
Credits
Marks
COH631 BUSINESS ANALYTICS - 4 4 100
COH632 ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL REPORTING - 4 4 100
COH633 TAXATION LAWS - II - 4 04 100
COH641A INTERNATIONAL FINANCE - 4 4 100
COH641B BANKING LAW AND OPERATIONS - 4 04 100
COH642A FINANCIAL SECURITIES AND DERIVATIVES - 4 04 100
COH642B BANKING AND INSURANCE COMPANY ACCOUNTS - 4 4 100
COH643A INVESTMENT ANALYSIS AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT - 4 4 100
COH643B INTERNATIONAL BANKING - 4 04 100
COH681 RESEARCH WORK - 0 4 100
      

    

Department Overview:

The Department of Commerce, one of the oldest and largest departments of the University, believes in developing and nurturing global competencies in students through quality education, research and continuous innovation. It provides a proficient environment to nurture commerce professionals with a high level of knowledge and competence to effectively contribute to society with commitment and integrity. The department offers undergraduate courses like BCom, BCom (Honours) and BCom (Strategic Finance Honours); Master’s Programme in Commerce and Doctorate of Philosophy in Commerce. It also provides value-added professional programmes and certifications through recognised global bodies such as the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA), USA, Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment (CISI), UK and Insurance Institute of India (III). In recognition of excellence in the provision of higher education in the fields of financial services, CISI, UK awarded the University with the 'CISI centre of Excellence Accreditation', the only university outside the UK which has been conferred with this status. With a student strength of over 2600, the department ranks sixth in India and first in Bengaluru for Commerce education (The India Today- MDRA Survey 2021).

Mission Statement:

Vision: To be a Centre of Excellence in the realm of Commerce and Management, developing and nurturing global competencies in students through quality education, research, and continuous innovation. 

Mission: To nurture commerce professionals who possess a high level of knowledge and competence to effectively contribute to society with commitment and integrity.

Introduction to Program:

BCom (Honours) programme is a contemporary and progressive programme that caters to commerce aspirants who desire to build their professional competence on a higher plateau with specialized knowledge in the field of Business and Commerce. The curriculum is duly developed considering the desired level of knowledge exposure in the context of an ever-changing environment in global business. The three-year BCom (Honours) degree programme is divided into six semesters and is designed as per the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) model curriculum prescribed by UGC. It includes core papers, discipline-specific electives, generic electives and skill enhancement courses. Discipline-specific electives offered in the fifth and the sixth semesters are in the following streams: Finance & Investment and Banking & Insurance. Students are required to undertake research work (research article or report) in the sixth semester. Students are also required to complete two inter-disciplinary open elective courses in diverse disciplines [Humanities / Sciences] during the first two years of the BCom (Honours) programme after regular class hours. Successful completion of two such courses is mandatory for obtaining the BCom (Honours) degree. Each open elective course will enable students to earn two extra credits.

Program Objective:

Programme Objectives

  1. To develop academic expertise in a global context in the discipline.
  2. To impart relevant skills and competencies necessary to undertake professional certifications, higher education, entrepreneurial activities and employment.
  3. To develop the ability to distil salient points from assimilated information and make rational arguments
  4. To develop the ability to present ideas effectively in multicultural and contextual spaces.
  5. To nurture skills to contribute effectively towards societal development
  6. To inculcate values of personal autonomy and accountability, along with demonstrating responsibility for actions
  7. To recognize the need for and importance of life-long learning for personal and professional growth

Programme Outcomes

PO1. Academic expertise

PO2. Professional expertise

PO3. Creative, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

PO4. Effective Communication

PO5. Social sensitivity

Assesment Pattern

Assessment Pattern

Students are evaluated for each paper on the basis of written examination and continuous internal assessment (CIA). Each paper carries maximum of 100 marks and is evaluated as follows:

Assessment

Component

Description

Weight age

CIA I

Quizzes, role plays, objective type tests, written assignments,

discussion forums, article reviews, case analysis etc.

10%

CIA II

Mid semester written examination conducted for 2 hours

duration

25%

CIA III

Group work consisting of presentations, viva voce, and report

submission.

10%

ESE

Written examination conducted for 3 hours duration

50%

Attendance

 

05%

 

Total

100%

 

Examination And Assesments

Question Paper Pattern –MSE/CIA 2

The question paper pattern will be as specified below:

Sections

Type

Marks

A

Short Answer Questions- Answer any 5 questions out of 7

2 X 5 = 10

B

Conceptual / Descriptive Type questions- Answer any 2 questions

out of 3

2 x 5= 10

C

Analytical / Essay Type Questions- Answer any 2 questions out of 3

2 x 10 = 20

D

Case Study-Compulsory question

1 x 10 = 10

 

Question Paper Pattern - ESE

Sections

Type

Marks

A

Short Answer Questions- Answer any 12 questions out of 14

12X 2= 24

B

Conceptual / Descriptive-Answer any 4 questions out of 5

4x 6 = 24

C

Analytical / Essay Type Questions-Answer any 3 questions out

of 4

3x 12=36

D

Case study- Compulsory question

1 x 16 = 16

AEN121 - ADDITIONAL ENGLISH (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:3

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

The Additional English course is offered as a second language course and seeks to introduce the students to the nuances of English literature in its varied forms and genres. The students who choose Additional English are generally proficient in the English language. Hence, instead of focusing on introducing them to language, challenging texts in terms of ideas, form, and technique are chosen. Additional English as a course is designed for students in place of a regional language. Non-Resident Indians (NRIs), foreign nationals and students who have not taken Hindi, Kannada, Tamil or French at the Plus 2 or Class XII levels are eligible to choose Additional English. The course is taught for students from different streams, namely, BA, BSc, BCom, and BBA in the first year and for BA, BSc and BCom (Regular) in the second year.

The first year syllabus is an attempt by the Department of English, Christ University to recognize and bring together the polyphonic Indian and Indian sub-continental voices in English in English translation for the Additional English students of the first year. This effort aims to familiarize the students with regional literatures in translation, Indian Writing in English (IWE) and literatures from Pakistan, Nepal and Srilanka, thereby, enabling the students to learn more about Indian culture and ethos through writings from different regions of the country. We have tried to represent in some way or the other the corners of India and the Indian sub-continent in this microcosmic world of short stories, poems and essays

 

There is a prescribed text bookfor the first year students, compiled by the Department of English, Christ University and intended for private circulation.

The first semester has a variety of writing from India, Pakistan and Nepal. The various essays, short stories and poems deal with various socio-economic, cultural and political issues that are relevant to modern day India and the Indian sub-continent and will enable students to comprehend issues of identity-politics, caste, religion, class, and gender. All of the selections either in the manner of their writing, the themes they deal with or the ideologies that govern them are contemporary in relevance and sensibility, whether written by contemporary writers or earlier writers. An important addition to this syllabus is the preponderance of North-Eastern writing which was hitherto not well represented. Excerpts from interviews, autobiographical writings, sports and city narratives are added to this section to introduce students to the varied genres of literature.

The objectives of this course are

to expose students to the rich literary and cultural diversity of  Indian literatures

to sensitise students on the social, political, historical and cultural ethos that has shaped the nation- INDIA

to enable to grasp and appreciate the variety and abundance of Indian writing, of which this compilation is just a passing glance

to learn and appreciate India through association of ideas in the texts and the external contexts (BhashaUtsav will be an intrinsic help in this endeavour)

  

 

Learning Outcome

Learning Outcome

 

The students will become

sensitive to cultural, social, religious and ethnic diversities and help them engage with their peers and all around them in a more understanding and ‘educated’ manner.

 

it will also enable them through the activities conducted to become more proactive citizens/participants in society.

 

aware of the dynamics of gender, identity, communalism and politics of this vast nation through its literature.

 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Poetry
 

1.      Keki N Daruwala     “Migrations”

 

2.      Kamala Das            “Forest Fire”

 

3.      Agha Shahid Ali      “Snow on the Desert”

 

4.      Eunice D Souza       “Marriages are Made”

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:15
Short Stories
 

1.      Rabindranath Tagore    “Babus of Nayanjore”

 

2.      Ruskin Bond  “He said it with Arsenic”

 

3.      Bhisham Sahni       “The Boss Came to Dinner”

 

4.      N. Kunjamohan Singh    “The Taste of Hilsa”

 

5.      Mohan Thakuri                “Post Script”

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:20
Essays
 

1.      Mahatma Gandhi       “What is True Civilization?” (Excerpts from Hind Swaraj)

 

2.      Ela Bhatt                    “Organising for Change”

 

3.      Sitakant Mahapatra     “Beyond the Ego: New Values for a Global Neighborhood

 

4.      B R Ambedkar             “Waiting for A Visa”

 

Text Books And Reference Books:

Contemporary knowledge of the soci-political situation in the sub-continent

The text book copy "Reading Diversity"

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

On-line resources to appreciate the text through the Comprehension Questions

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1:  Classroom assignment for 20 marks keeping in mind the objectives and learning outcomes of the course.

CIA 2: Mid-semester written exam for 50 marks

CIA 3: Collage, tableaus, skits, talk shows, documentaries, Quizzes or any proactive            creative assignments that might help students engage with India as a cultural space. This is to be done keeping in mind the objectives and learning outcomes of the course.

Question Paper Pattern

Mid Semester Exam: 2 hrs

Section A: 4x5= 20

Section B: 2x15=30

Total                  50

 

End Semester Exam: 2 hrs

Section A: 4 x 5 = 20

Section B: 2 x 15= 30

Total                   50

COH131 - FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Course Description:

Accounting is referred as the language of business. This course presents the underlying framework and concepts of Financial Accounting in the context of how accounting fits into the overall business environment of contemporary society. This course on Financial Accounting is offered as a compulsory paper in the first semester. Students will learn how accounting is an information development and communication system that supports economic decision-making and provides value to entities and society. As a prerequisite, the students should be having basic knowledge of Accountancy.

Course Objective:

  • To equip the students with the knowledge of different aspects of accounting including valuation of stock in case of fire.
  • To acquaint the students with accounting for Hire Purchase and Installment Systems.
  • To develop understanding of students in allocation of common expenses and incomes, preparation of final accounts of branches.
  • To familiarize them with the treatment in case of sale of Partnerships.
  • To develop accounting knowledge relating to Royalty accounts.
  • To accustom them with the conversion of single entry to double entry system of maintenance of accounts.

Learning Outcome

  • After completion of this course, students will be able to:
  • Understand the process of valuation of loss of stock in the event of fire and calculate loss of stock in case of firebreak out in the business premises.
  • Solve and prepare books of accounts for special transactions like Hire purchase and Installment purchase.
  • Prepare accounts for the businesses with different branches.
  • Understand the accounting impact of conversion of partnership firms to limited Companies.
  • Create books as per double entry system, when information based on single entry system is provided.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Insurance Claim
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual and Working

Introduction – Need – loss of stock policy – preparation of statement to ascertain value of stock on the date of fire – Treatment of salvage – valuation of stocks prior to date of fire – calculation of GP Ratio when GP Ratio is not given – Treatment of Average Clause, Treatment of Abnormal items.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Accounting for Hire Purchase and Installment Systems
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual and Working

Hire Purchase - Meaning - Legal provisions, [including repossession, only theory] - Calculation of interest - when rate of interest and cash price is given - when cash price and total amount payable is given when rate of interest and installments amount are given but cash price is not given - Calculation of cash price under annuity method - Journal entries and Ledger accounts in the books of hire-purchaser and hire-vendor.

Installment system- Meaning - Difference between hire purchase and installment system (Theory only)

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:14
Accounting for Inland Branches
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual and Working

Concept of dependent branches, Accounting aspects, Debtors system. Independent branches: Concept- Accounting treatment: important adjustment entries.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Conversion of Single Entry to Double Entry System of Book-keeping
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual and Working

Converting single entry into double entry system - steps in conversion - ascertainment of sales, purchases, stocks, cash and bank balances, capital etc - preparation of final accounts

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:14
Automation in Accounting
 

Meaning of Automation, Automation in Accounting, Impact on Accountants and Industry, Tally, XBRL, Blockchain, Cloud Computing in Accounting, Big Data in Accounting, Robotic Process Automation in Accounting, Recent innovations in Accounting: Connected Banking.

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.      Jain &Narang, (2016). Financial Accounting. Mumbai: Kalyani.

2.      Gupta, R.L., &Radhaswamy, M., (2016) Financial Accounting (18ed.). New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons.

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.       MaheswariS.N.&MaheswariS.K.(2019).Advancedaccountancy.NewDelhi:Vikas

2.       ShuklaM.C.&GrewallT.S.(2019).Advancedaccountancy(15Ed.).NewDelhi:S.Chand

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Component

Description

Weight age

CIA I

Quizzes, role plays, objective type tests, written assignments, discussion forums, article reviews, case analysis etc.

10%

CIA II

Mid semester written examination conducted for 2 hours duration

25%

CIA III

Group work consisting of presentations, viva voce, and report submission.

10%

ESE

Written examination conducted for 3 hours duration

50%

Attendance

 

05%

 

Total

100%

COH132 - BUSINESS LAW (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

CourseDescription

The paper deals in detailed knowledge of the major commercial laws of the country. It aims at providing knowledge of the business laws applicable in India and the framework within which business houses are expected to function. As a prerequisite, students should be having a basic knowledge about concepts relating to laws and its amendments. 

Course Objective:

·         To help students understand the concept of agreement and contract as contained in Indian Contract Act 1872 and its different aspects like essential elements of valid contract, different types of contract and breach of contract and its remedies.

·         To make students aware of Law of Special contracts such as contract of indemnity, guarantee, bailment and contract of agency.

·         To familiarise the students about certain concept of Sale of Goods Act 1930 such as sale and agreement to sell, conditions and warranties and unpaid seller.

·         To teach the different aspects of Consumer Protection Act 2019 such as unfair trade practices and restrictive trade practices.

Learning Outcome

  • Differentiate between agreement and contract and to explain different types of contract.
  • Explain the features, modes of creation and rights and duties of parties in case of contract of indemnity, guarantee, bailment and agency.
  • Compare sale and agreement to sell and explain conditions and warranties.
  • Describe the procedure to be followed in filing complaints for different customer grievances under different levels of customer redressal agencies.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:24
The Indian Contract Act, 1872: General Principle of Law of Contract
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Introductions to interpretations of Statute (Bare Act and Legal Terminologies); a) Contract – meaning, characteristics and kinds b) Essentials of a valid contract - Offer and acceptance, consideration, contractual capacity, free consent, legality of objects. c) Void agreements d) Discharge of a contract – modes of discharge, breach and remedies against breach of contract.

e) Contingent contracts f) Quasi - contracts

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
The Indian Contract Act, 1872: Law of Special Contracts
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

a)  Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee b) Contract of Bailment c) Contract of Agency

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
The Sale of Goods Act, 1930
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

a) Contract of sale, meaning and difference between sale and agreement to sell. b) Conditions and warranties c) Transfer of ownership in goods including sale by a non-owner d) Performance of contract of sale e) Un-paid seller – meaning, rights of an unpaid seller against the goods and the buyer.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Consumer Protection Act 2019
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Objects of the Act, rights of consumer, definition – appropriate laboratory, consumer, compliant and complainant, consumer dispute, defect, deficiency, service and restrictive trade practice/unfair trade practice, consumer protection councils – central consumer protection council, state consumer protection council. Consumer grievance redressed machinery – national commission (functions/jurisdiction/powers/relief that can be granted under the act)

Text Books And Reference Books:

N D Kapoor, Elements of Mercantile Law(2013). New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons Publication

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. M.C. Kuchhal, and VivekKuchhal, Business Law(2010). New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House

2. Avtar Singh, Business Law(2011).Lucknow: Eastern Book Company

3. SN Maheshwari and SK Maheshwari.BusinessLaw(2010): National Publishing House: New Delhi.

4.P C Tulsian and Bharat Tulsian. Business Law(2010). McGraw Hill Education

5.  Sharma, J.P. and SunainaKanojia, Business Laws(2010).New Delhi: Ane Books Pvt. Ltd.,  

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Component

Description

Weight age

CIA I

Quizzes, role plays, objective type tests, written assignments, discussion forums, article reviews, case analysis etc.

10%

CIA II

Mid semester written examination conducted for 2 hours duration

25%

CIA III

Group work consisting of presentations, viva voce, and report submission.

10%

ESE

Written examination conducted for 3 hours duration

50%

Attendance

 

05%

 

Total

100%

COH133 - BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Course Description:

This course provides the knowledge base for understanding and analyzing the impact of external and internal environment on business organisation. The main objective of the course is to impart students with the knowledge on the concepts and elements under Economical, Legal, Natural, Technological, Political, Socio-Cultural and Global Environment. The Course also provides thorough knowledge to students about the different policies and regulations being followed in India and also about the techniques of environment analysis as a foundation to corporate strategy, and as a prerequisite the students must know the basic environmental factors affecting the business and knowledge about business management. This course will also provide real life case studies or incident to students to understand and develop problem solving skill and technique to overcome the issues.

Course Objectives:

  • To provide a comprehensive understanding of the nature and scope of business environment.
  • To acquaint students with analytical and critical thinking skills by teaching the techniques of environment scanning, business analysis and strategic management.
  • To show how business is affected by the different types of environments (i.e. economic, political, social, cultural, technological) in which it operates;
  • To introduce students to the nature and complexities of international business and analyse trends and changes in the current global business environment.
  • To develop problem solving and practical thinking skills by discussing various cases related to real world situations and to apply the knowledge in finding solutions for the same.

Learning Outcome

At the end of this course, students should be able to:

  • Describe the nature and scope of business environment, and also to analyze the business environment in the Indian context.
  • Explain the various processes of environmental scanning and analysis in detail.
  • Examine how different factors in the external environment are likely to impact a venture.
  • Assess socio-cultural and technological environments and their influences on businesses.
  • Acquire an appreciation of the evolution of the global economy and of current topical debates surrounding ‘globalization’.
  • Apply theories and concepts related to business environment to analyse and interpret actual business situations; and facilitate discussions on contemporary issues.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:12
Conceptual Framework of Business Environment
 

Level of Knowledge: Basic and Conceptual

Concept, Significance, and Nature of Business Environment – Internal, External, Micro and Macro; Environmental Analysis-Concept, Process, Limitation, Techniques of environmental analysis and Strategic Management (VRIO framework, Porter’s five force model, Need Gap analysis, SWOT Analysis, QUEST, Blue ocean Strategy and PESTLE)

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:12
Economic Environment and Legal Environment
 

Level of Knowledge: Basic and Conceptual

Economic Environment: Concept of Economic system, Objectives, Industrial policy 1991 (Industrial Licensing, Foreign Investment, Foreign Technology Agreements, Public Sector Policy and MRTP Act); NITI Aayog, Functions and initiative; Effect of recession on Business and remedies; Legal Environment: Company regulatory legislation in India, Competition Act and its salient features, FEMA, Monetary policy, Fiscal policy and Latest EXIM policy.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Natural Environment and Technological Environment
 

Natural Environment: Meaning and significance, Natural environmental factors affecting business, The Environment Protection Act 1986; National Green Tribunal Act 2010; Paris Climate Agreement. Technological Environment: Innovation, Technological leadership and followership, Sources of technological dynamics, Technology and competitive advantage, Transfer of technology and its problems, Management of technology, Impact of technology on business and society (Artificial Intelligence and Augmented Reality, Big Data, Internet of Things).

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Political Environment and Socio-Cultural Environment
 

Level of Knowledge: Basic and Conceptual

Political Environment: Three political institutions: Legislature, Executive and Judiciary, Brief note on Fundamental rights and Duties, Rationale and extent of state intervention, Role of Government – Regulatory, Promotional and Entrepreneurial, Government’s responsibility to business, Business’s responsibility to Government; Brief overview about Make in India and Start Up India. Socio-Cultural Environment: Corporate Social responsibility of business- Business Ethics and Corporate Governance, Social audit, impact of culture on business.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:12
Global Environment
 

Level of Knowledge: Basic and Conceptual

Internationalization: Stages and Orientation, Modes of entry into international business; New Foreign Direct Investment policy of India; World Trade Organization-Objectives and principles, implications for India; Trading Blocks-Meaning and types; International Political environment and associated risks; International Economic environment – recent trends in world trade in goods and services; Socio-Cultural complexities of international business; Legal Dimensions in International Business.

Text Books And Reference Books:

K. Ashwathappa, Essentials of business environment, Bangalore: Himalaya publications. DOI: www.himpub.com(Latest Edition)

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading
  1. Francis Cherunilam, Business Environment, Mumbai: Himalaya publishing house. (Latest Edition)
  2. S.K.MishraP,Economic Environment, Delhi: Himalaya publishing house. (Latest Edition)
  3. K Chidambaram, Business Environment,Vikas Publications.(Latest Edition)

 

 

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Component

Description

Weight age

CIA I

Quizzes, role plays, objective type tests, written assignments, discussion forums, article reviews, case analysis etc.

10%

CIA II

Mid semester written examination conducted for 2 hours duration

25%

CIA III

Group work consisting of presentations, viva voce, and report submission.

10%

ESE

Written examination conducted for 3 hours duration

50%

Attendance

 

05%

 

Total

100%

COH134 - BUSINESS ECONOMICS - I (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:60
No of Lecture Hours/Week:4
Max Marks:100
Credits:4

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Course Description

The approach of this paper is to study the behaviour of a Unit and the analysis is generally static and in partial equilibrium with the framework. The modules incorporated in this Paper deal with the nature and scope of economics, the theory of consumer behavior, analysis of production function and equilibrium of a producer, the price formation in different markets structures and the equilibrium of a firm and industry. As a prerequisite, the students should have basic knowledge about the concepts relating to micro economics.

Course Objective:

The objective of this paper is to make the students understand the behavior of an economic agent, namely, a consumer, a producer, a factor owner and the price fluctuation in a market.

Learning Outcome

  • To make students aware of the basic economic concepts and theories of economics.
  • Develop the conceptual foundations and analytical methods used in micro economics;
  • Familiarize the students with the basics of consumer behavior, behavior of firms and market equilibrium;
  • To develop among students the ability to understand and appreciate the economic theories and their application in real economic life.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Basic Concepts
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Ten principles of economics: How people make decisions, how people interact and how the economy as a whole works- Role of observations and theory in economics- Role of assumptions- Role of Economic models- Wants and resources; Problem of choice, Production Possibility Frontier; Opportunity cost; Basic economic problems common to all economies.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:11
The Market Forces of Demand and supply
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Law of demand, Reasons for the downward slope of the demand curve. Exceptions to the law; Changes in demand; Elasticity of Demand- Degrees of price elasticity with diagrams; Factors determining price elasticity, methods of measurement. Income elasticity demand; Cross elasticity demand; Demand forecasting- Methods; Laws of supply, Changes in supply- Consumers, Producers and the Efficiency of the Markets: Consumer’s surplus (Marshall), Producer surplus and Market efficiency- Externalities and Market inefficiency- Public goods and common resources.

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:12
Theory of Consumer Choice and New Frontiers in Microeconomics
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Cardinal utility analysis; Law of diminishing marginal utility; Consumer’s surplus (Marshall), Ordinal utility analysis. Indifference curves- Properties, consumer’s equilibrium, Price effect, Income effect and substitution effect.

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:12
Theory of Production and Cost
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Production function; Law of variable proportions; Laws of returns, Economies of scale; Producer’s Equilibrium with the help of iso-quants and iso-cost lines. Cost function- Important cost concepts. Short run and long run cost analysis (traditional theory) Modern theory of cost- Long run and short run. Revenue analysis. AR and MR.

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:15
Product Pricing and Factor Pricing
 

Level of Knowledge: Conceptual

Market structure- Perfect competition, Price and output determination- Role of time element in market price determination. Monopoly- Price output determination, Price discrimination Monopolistic Competition. Price and Output determination. Selling costs. Product differentiation- oligopoly; Price determination (collusive pricing, price leadership).

Text Books And Reference Books:

1.     N. Gregory Mankiw (2012). Principles of Macroeconomics, 6th Edition, Cengage Learning India.

2.      The Core Team (2017) The Economy: Economics for a Changing World, Oxford University Press

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1.       Lipsey, R.G. and K.A. Chrystal (2011).Principles of Economics (IX ed.).Oxford University Press: Oxford

2.       Ramsfield, E. (2012). Micro Economics (IX ed.). New York: W.W Norton and company.

3.       Ray, N.C. (2014).An introduction to Microeconomics, Macmillan Company of India Ltd: New Delhi

4.       Samuelson, PA and W.D. Hague (2012).A textbook of Economic Theory. ELBS Longman group: London.

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Component

Description

Weight age

CIA I

Quizzes, role plays, objective type tests, written assignments, discussion forums, article reviews, case analysis etc.

10%

CIA II

Mid semester written examination conducted for 2 hours duration

25%

CIA III

Group work consisting of presentations, viva voce, and report submission.

10%

ESE

Written examination conducted for 3 hours duration

50%

Attendance

 

05%

 

Total

100%

ENG121 - ENGLISH - I (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:2

Course Objectives/Course Description

 
  • To expose learners to a variety of texts to interact with
  • To help learners classify ideologies and be able to express the same
  • To expose learners to visual texts and its reading formulas
  • To help learners develop a taste to appreciate works of literature through the organization of language
  • To help develop critical thinking
  • To help learners appreciate literature and the language nuances that enhances its literary values
  • To help learners understand the relationship between the world around them and the text/literature
  • To help learners negotiate with content and infer meaning contextually
  • To help learners understand logical sequencing of content and process information

·         To help improve their communication skills for larger academic purposes and vocational purposes

·         To enable learners to learn the contextual use of words and the generic meaning

·         To enable learners to listen to audio content and infer contextual meaning

·         To enable learners to be able to speak for various purposes and occasions using context specific language and expressions

·         To enable learners to develop the ability to write for various purposes using suitable and precise language.

Learning Outcome

·         Understand how to engage with texts from various countries, historical, cultural specificities and politics

 

·         Understand and develop the ability to reflect upon and comment on texts with various themes

 

·         Develop an analytical and critical bent of mind to compare and analyze the various literature they read and discuss in class

 

·         Develop the ability to communicate both orally and in writing for various purposes

 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:6
Unit 1 1. The Happy Prince By Oscar Wilde 2. Shakespeare Sonnet 18
 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:6
language
 

Common errors- subject-verb agreement, punctuation, tense errors 

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:6
unit 2
 

1. Why We Travel-Pico Iyer

2. What Solo Travel Has Taught Me About the World – and Myself -ShivyaNath- Blogpost

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:6
language
 

sentence fragments, dangling modifiers, faulty parallelism,

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:6
language
 

Note taking

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:6
unit 3
 

1. Thinking Like a Mountain

By Aldo Leopold

2. Short Text: On Cutting a Tree

By Gieve Patel

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:6
unit 4
 

1. Violence in the name of God is Violence against God

By Rev Dr Tveit

 

2. Poem: Holy Willie's Prayer

By Robert Burns

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:6
language
 

Paragraph writing

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:6
Language
 

Newspaper report

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:6
unit 5
 

1. The Story of B24

By Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

 2. Short Text: Aarushi Murder case 

 

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:6
unit 6
 

1.Long text:My Story- Nicole DeFreece

 

2. short text: Why You Should Never Aim for Six Packs

 

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:6
Language
 

Essay writing

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:6
unit 7
 

1.Long Text: Sir Ranjth Singh- Essay by SouravGanguly

2. Short text: Casey at the Bat-  Ernest Lawrence Thayer

Unit-7
Teaching Hours:6
Language
 

Paraphrasing and interpretation skills

Unit-8
Teaching Hours:3
visual text
 

Visual Text: Before the Flood

Text Books And Reference Books:

ENGlogue 1

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

Addfitional  material as per teacher manual will be provided by the teachers

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1=20

CIA 2=50 

CIA 3= 20 

ESE= 50 marks online and 50 marks written exam

FRN121 - FRENCH (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:3

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

French as a second language in the UG program. The method Génération A1 consists of a student's book and an activity book, both included in the digital manual. It consists of 6 units preceded by an initial section of 'Welcome'. The structure of each unit marks a real learning journey.

 

Course Objectives

·       To develop linguistic competencies and sharpen oral and written communicative skills

·       To familiarize learners to certain aspects of francophone civilization.

·       To enable learners to engage in simple everyday situations

Learning Outcome

Enhancement of linguistic competencies and sharpening of written and oral communicative skills. Being aware of francophone civilization. Ability to engage in simple conversations in French.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
I discover
 

Lesson 1: Good Morning, how are you?

 Lexicon – Countries and nationalities, domestic animals, days of the week

 Grammar -Subject pronouns, verbs ‘to be’ and ‘to have’, definite and indefinite articles

 Speech acts – Greeting, asking how one is

 

Lesson 2: Hello, my name is Agnes.

Lexicon – Months of the year, numbers 0-69, the family

Grammar – Formation of the feminine / plural, possessive adjectives

Speech acts -Introducing oneself and others, asking and saying dates

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:5
Les fables de la Fontaine
 

La cigale et la fourmis (The grasshopper and the ant)

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Culture: Physical and Political France
 

 

Lesson 1: Who is it?

Lexicon - Professions

Grammar – Formation of the feminine, interrogative /negative phrases, it is

Speech acts – Asking and answering politely

   
 

Lesson 2: In my bag, I have......

Lexicon – Some objects, identity card

Grammar – First group verbs, verbs ‘to go’ and ‘to come’

Speech acts – Asking personal information

 

 

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:5
Les fables de la Fontaine
 

Le renard et le corbeau (The fox and the crow)

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:10
Video Workshop: How cute he is!
 

 

Lesson 1: How is he?

Lexicon – The physical aspect, character

Grammar – The formation of the feminine, contracted articles, tonique pronouns, there

                    is/are, interrogative adverbs

Speech acts – Describing the physical aspects and the character

   
 

Lesson 2: Hello?

Lexicon – Prepositions of place, numbers from 70

Grammar – Numbers, prepositions of place, second group verbs, verb ‘to do’

Speech acts – Speaking on the phone                                                                              

 

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:5
Visual text
 

A French movie

Text Books And Reference Books:

1. Cocton, Marie-Noelle. Génération A1. Paris : Didier, 2016 

      2.  De Lafontaine, Jean. Les Fables de la Fontaine.

           Paris, 1668

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

French websites like Bonjour de France, Fluent U French, Learn French Lab, Point du FLE etc

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Pattern

CIA (Weight)

ESE (Weight)

CIA 1 – Assignments / Letter writing / Film review

10%

 

CIA 2 –Mid Sem Exam

25%

 

CIA 3 – Quiz / Role Play / Theatre / Creative projects 

10%

 

Attendance

05%

 

End Sem Exam

 

50%

Total

50%

50%

HIN122 - HINDI (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:3

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Course Description: 

The detailed text book 'Samakaleen Hindi Kavitha” is a collection of Modern Hindi poems of leading writers of Hindi Poetry edited by Dr.N Mohanan.From the medieval poetry ' Kabir Ke Dohe and Sur ke pad 'is also included.By teaching business correspondence emphasis is being given to functional Hindi too. Hindusthani Music and TranslationPractice also have been included in this semester.

 

Course Objectives:

 

Students will be exposed toto read and analyse and appreciate poems by learning poetry. Through translation, students will be able to develop translation skills while translating from other languages and literature.. Business correspondence helps the students to enhance the functional aspects of the language. Students will be exposed to the world of poetry. Through translation, students can understand different languages, literatures and cultures of India

 

Learning Outcome

 

By the end of the course the student should be able to:

 

 ●    CO1: Improve their writing skill in literary Hindi by doing asynchronous session assignments and CIAs.

●    CO2: Improve their analytical skills through critical analysis of the poems.

 

 ●    CO3: To appreciate the different aspects of Hindustani music.

 

 ●    CO4: To improve their basic research skills through creative and research oriented CIAs.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:15
Kavya Sankalan - Samakaleen Hindi Kavitha. (An anthology of contemporary Hindi poems), Kabir ke Dohe and Sur Ke Pad
 

‘Samakaleen Hindi Kavitha’ (Collection of Poems) Ed by Dr N Mohanan, Rajpal and son's, New Delhi

Level of knowledge: Analytical

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:15
Hindustani Music
 

Gazal Ki Parampara and Pramukh kalakar

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Translation- practice
 


                  

Translation-Practice English to Hindi and vise- versa

Level of knowledge:Basic                                           

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Patra Lekhan --Vyavasaik Patra Vyavhar (Business letters)
 

Vyavasaik Patra Vyavhar (Business letters)                                

  1. Mulya Suchi 
  2. Adesh
  3. Shikayathi
  4. Bhugtan

Level of knowledge: Conceptual

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Hindusthani Sangeeth-parampara evam pramukh kalakar
 

Utbhav,Vikas aur paramparaein

Pramukh Sangeethkar-1.Bhimsen Joshi 2.Gulam Ali 3.Pandit Ravishankar 4. Bismillah Khan.

Text Books And Reference Books:

  1. Kavya Sankalan - ‘Samakaleen Hindi Kavitha’ (Collection of Poems)Ed. by Dr. N Mohanan.
Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. Abhinav Patra-Vyavahar -Dr.Paramanand Gupta

2. Vanijya Hindi By A.R.Narti1.A Hand Book of Translation Studies By Das Bijay Kumar

3. Anuvad Evam Sanchar – Dr Pooranchand Tantan, Rajpal and Son’s, Kashmiri Gate, New Delhi – 110006

4. Anuvad Vignan By Bholanath Tiwari

Evaluation Pattern

CIA-1(Digital learning-Editing of Hindi article in Hindi Wikipedia)-20 marks

CIA-2(Mid semester examination)-50 marks

CIA-3(Digital learning-Creating article in Hindi Wikipedia )-20 marks

End sem examination-50 marks

KAN122 - KANNADA (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:03

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

 

The selected Poems are Prescribed from 10 Century to 21 Century belongs to old, Medieval and Modern period.   The syllabus will extend the concerns of family, relationship, social justice and marginalized. Through the prescribed text students can compose poems.  The prescribed short stories are exposed to the world of Kannada fiction particularly modern Kannada short stories.  Students are well versed in creative writings like Poetry, Play, short story Essays etc. 

 

  • To expose learners to the Modern short story writing
  • To expose learners to visual text and its reading formulas
  • It will help to develop the critical thinking to inculcate literary sensibility/taste among students across disciplines

 

Learning Outcome

 

  • Able to generate original ideas and create short stories related to social and environmental issues
  • Able to think critically, analytically and logically
  • Expose to know about others perspectives.
  • Encourages comparative analysis between literary cultures and phases of literary development

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:15
Poetry - Old & Medieval Poetries
 

1.      Pampa-Bharata Bahubali Prasanga

2.      Janna- Chitramapatre Ramate Naari

3.      Raghavanka- Purada Punyam Purusha Roopinde Pogutide

4.      Devaradasimayya  

5.      Basavanna  

6.      Akkamahadevei

7.      Allamaprabhu

8.      Urilingapeddi

9.      Purandara Dasa

10.  Kanakadasa

11.  Vadiraja  

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Modern Poetries
 

 1.B.M.Shree- Kaarihrggadeya Magalu

 2.Bendre- Hakki Haarutide Nodidira

 3. Gopala Krishna Adiga- Neharu Nivruttaraguvudill

 4. G.S Shivarudrappa – Mumbai Jaataka

 5. T Yellappa- Avaru Mattu Naavu

 6. Muktayakka- Mooru Mukhagalu

 

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Short Stories
 

 1.B.M.Shree- Kaarihrggadeya Magalu

 2.Bendre- Hakki Haarutide Nodidira

 3.Gopala Krishna Adiga- Neharu Nivruttaraguvudill

 4. G.S Shivarudrappa – Mumbai Jaataka

 5. T Yellappa- Avaru Mattu Naavu

 6. Muktayakka- Mooru Mukhagalu

     

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Language Skills
 

Language Skills

 

     1.  A- H, L-l, N-n, Hrasva- Deerga, Ottakshara, Joining of words

     2. Business Terms.

 
Text Books And Reference Books:

        1.  Adipurana- Pampa

       2. Yashodhara Charite- Janna

       3. Harishchandra Kavya- Raghavanka

       4. Shree Sahitya- B M Shreekantaiah



Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

1. Pampa Ondu Adhyayana- G S Shivarudrappa

2. Vachana Chandrike- L Basavaraju

3. Purandara Sahitya Darshana- S K Ramachandra Rao

 

 

 

 

Evaluation Pattern

CIA-1 - Test in the Google Class about old Kannada language and literature -20 Marks

CIA-2 Mid Semester Examination- 50 Marks

CIA-3 Submission in the Google Class - 20 Marks

End Semester Examination- 50 Marks

SAN122 - SANSKRIT (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:3

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Shishupalavadha is considered one of the six model mahakavyas. It is based on an episode of the Mahabharata in which King Shishupala insults the hero-Lord Krishna, who beheads him in the ensuing duel. Comprising 20 cantos, the Shishupalavadha has a rich vocabulary that allegedly includes every known word in the Sanskrit language. The 19th canto, which is noted for its complexity, contains a stanza that is identical to the previous stanza if read backward.

Learning Outcome

 To acquaint the students with the linguistic features, aesthetic sense and other specific key features of famous Sanskrit kavyas like Shishupalavadham.

To develop among students the style of creating literary works (Poetry) in Sanskrit.

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Shishupalavadham of Magha I canto
 

Introduction  shlokas 1 to 20 Shishupalavadha is considered one of the six model mahakavyas. It is based on an episode of the Mahabharata in which King Shishupala insults the hero-Lord Krishna, who beheads him in the ensuing duel. Comprising 20 cantos, the Shishupalavadha has a rich vocabulary that allegedly includes every known word in the Sanskrit language. The 19th canto, which is noted for its complexity, contains a stanza that is identical to the previous stanza if read backward.

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
shisupalavadham canto 1
 

Shlokas 20 to 40 shlokas 

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
canto 1
 

Shlokas 40-50

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
canto 1
 

Shlokas 50 to 60 

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:5
Grammar
 

sandhi prakaranam and lakaras

Text Books And Reference Books:

1)      Shishupalavadha of Magha

2)      Sanskrit Grammar Translation from English to Sanskrit by M.R. Kale

3)      Sanskrit Grammar Kannada version by Hegde.        

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading

 five Mahakavyas,  origin and development of Kavyas , Authors of Five Mahakavyas

Evaluation Pattern

CIA 1 Wikipedia assignments

CIA 2 Mid semester examinations

CIA 3 Wikipedia assignments

TAM121 - TAMIL (2021 Batch)

Total Teaching Hours for Semester:45
No of Lecture Hours/Week:3
Max Marks:100
Credits:3

Course Objectives/Course Description

 

Poems of Bharatiyar and Bharatidasan and poems by women poets with feminine sensibilities  will initiate the students into the modern period with all its complexities. The short stories by Ambai offers a matured vision of life through a varied characters and situatins. A new concept, Cultural Studies, will take the students beyond prescribed syllabus to include music, theatre, painting and films out of whcih the art form of music is taken up for the first semester.

Learning Outcome

To make the students experience the impact made by Bharathiyar and Bharathidasan during the 20th century and to bring them to the realities of 21st century. They will also learn, on their own, about the nuances of music and a unique aesthetic experience it offers 

Unit-1
Teaching Hours:10
Modern Poetry- Bharathiyar
 

1. Kannan yen sevagan

2. Kannan yen kozhandhai

3. Kannan yen vilayatu pillai

4. Kannan yen kadhalan

5. Kannan yen kadhali

 

Unit-2
Teaching Hours:10
Bharathi dasan
 

1. Kadal

2. Kundram

3. Nyaairu

4. Aal

5. Chittrur

Unit-3
Teaching Hours:10
Contemporary Cultural Issues
 

Prose including reference to contemporary literary issues

1. Oru karupu silanthi udan oru iravu- Ambai

Cultural studies, Indian festivals

Unit-4
Teaching Hours:10
Penniya kavithaigal
 

1.Ottadai -Thamarai

2. Kapinaani thozhudhal- Ponmani vairamutu

3. Yendhan tozha- Subhathra

4. Kadal konda pen puram- Andal priya dharshini

5. Pen- P. Kalpana '

 

 

Unit-5
Teaching Hours:2
Grammer- Language skills
 

Pira mozhi chorkal

Unit-6
Teaching Hours:3
Common topic
 

Isai

Text Books And Reference Books:

 

Malliga, R et al (ed).Thamilppathirattu I.Bangalore: Prasaranga,2011

     ‘Oru Karuppuchilanthiyudan Or Iravu’ by Ambai,

 

      published by Kalachuvadu Publications, Nagercoil, 2014

 

 

 

 

Essential Reading / Recommended Reading